Found Biblical heritage of Black Americans Historical Evidence They Are Hebrews ( New Videos Added )

WIKEPEDIA BIBLICAL HERITAGE OF BLACK AMERICANS MUST SEE (Updated more information)

The Word of God and Neither does the Spirit of Truth lie, I  knew he revealed the truth to me, below is  a Wikepedia confirmation blacks are in fact Hebrews decendants  of Shem and Father Abraham . My question is did the church know this ? I can see already that this is a very unpopular subject but If the truth is not uncovered with us, God will uncover the truth and many are not going to like it. This is sure not about pride or arrogance since the slave trade is a dark part of history that many should be ashamed of, nor is it about racial superiority. These are facts. I thought this was a good post to put up since blacks do not know their heritage in this country when other nationalities do. We all learn something new each day so I am happy that we have the opportunity to share it enjoy.

NEWSPAPER “1897”
Houston, Texas Monday, Sept 20 1897
NEGRO WHO CAN WRITE HEBREW
He Is Deaf and Dumb and Comes From an African Town
Hartford, Conn.. September 19,- A young African negro has been in the city for the last few days who claims to be a Hebrew. He is deaf and dumb and as black as the ace of spades. He carries a pad of paper with him and answers all questions by writting them in HEBREW and LESHON KHODISH.
What excites the mosy wonder is that he writes LESHON KHODISH very rapidily. IT IS THE LANGUAGE OF THE BOOK OF MOSES and is made a special study of spoken and written with
ease only by rabbis and HIGHLY EDUCATED HEBREWS.
THE NEGROE WAS SENT TO ONE OF THE RABBIS
OF HARLLOT , who was PERFECTLY SATISFIED that HE IS HEBREW.
He says that he came from a large town in africa. where there are a tribe of 20,000 blackBLEACK HEBREWS who speak loschen Khodish and are quit prosperous. He says that his father is a rabbi in the town and that is why his father took the trouble to teach him to write these languages. which needed an extra amount of labor on the account of him being def and dumb. He says his people not only write Leshon Khodish, but its their speaking language as well.
He left home a few years ago and has seen a good deal of the world. In each town he hunts up the Jewish section,
and there they give him clothes, food and money.
what surprises him he writes is that no Hebrew knows of his countrymen in africa
(library of congress) http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn94051168/1897-10-15/ed-1/seq-7/

from links :  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan.

(New Video with Barbara Walters)

If the above video don’t say it all I don’t know what will for those who are unconvinced

http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/elephantine

writers quote about greed of gentiles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephantine

people of elephine island

The people of a Elephantine village

elephine woman

Elephantine Woman

elaphine child

Elephantine Child

(GROUNDBREAKING EVIDENCE THEY HAVE ALREADY COMPARED HEBREW MUMMY SKULLS FROM ANCIENT EGYPT AND NEGRO SLAVE SKULLS AND THEY ARE AN UNDISPUTED MATCH)

George M. Fredrickson, Stanford Professor, “The Black Image in the White Mind” Pg. 74-75 wrote:In the 1840’s, Morton collaborated with George R. Gliddon, an Egyptologist, who provided him with mummy heads and information about the racial significance of Egyptian tomb inscriptions. In Crania Aegyptiaca, published in 1844, Morton pointed out that both cranial and archaeological evidence showed that Egyptians were not Negroes. The Negroes head was longer that the Egyptians heads.

The principle characteristics from the outside were similar with the thick lips and the broad nose, but once he start dwelling in the real characteristics, he found out that there were 2 totally different people. As abolitionist and colonizationist had maintained – that, in Fact, Blacks, had been relegated to the same servitude position in ancient Egypt as in modern America, but what Dr. Morton did discover is that the Negroes that were serving in slavery in America served the same position and servitude in ancient Egypt when he matched other skulls and the other remains in Egypt, they said these were exact matches. So what you are going to find out is that what they are saying is you (Negroes) are the biblical Israelites. Yes the same exact people that served in slavery in the land of Egypt, the same exact people that God sent Moses to go redeem from under the hand of Pharoah, the same exact people and when you read the bible you will find out that slavery is the central Theme in the bible.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouidah

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Whydah

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savi

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Haffon

http://www.hebrewigbo.com/historical.html

http://timbooktu.com/horton/misrep.htm

Hidden in plain sight, blacks were often called Afro American , in other countries Afro is always put on the front of the country a black person belongs to.

 

Definition of Hebrew

(ˈhiːbruː)

1. (Languages) the ancient language of the Hebrews, revived as the official language of Israel. It belongs to the Canaanitic branch of the Semitic subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages
2. (Historical Terms) a member of an ancient Semitic people claiming descent from Abraham; an Israelite
what is Afro – Asiatic ?
southeast asian girl
The face of an original Southeast Asian girl
southeast asian man
Picture of an Original Southeast Asian man known as Negrito
Known fact : the Suez Canal is man made it separates the land of Israel from Africa it was actually one whole continent before the man made continent . Moses and the children of Israel and even Joseph and his brothers, and Mary and Joseph with Jesus walked to Egypt before the land was parted. There was no such thing as the middle east or near east before this man made division

Picture evidence below to these historical found facts

Israel unvealed book

Excellent book to read above on this topic (Amazon)

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Jesus/Jesus.htm

http://historyrevised.com/the-black-tribes-of-judah/

http://amandatrayce.hubpages.com/hub/Erroneous-Cartography-The-True-Size-of-Africa-Misleading-Mercator-Map

Israeli man confesses ?

By this gathered evidence of the Jewish involvement in slavery by the admission of this Rabbi in this article below I am convinced that the Jewish people and Hebrew people are two different peoples no way would anyone enslave brutally their own people, those who did enslave these people knew full well that they were enslaving the Sons of Jacob. There is no doubt about it, historically and not through any kind of bible commandments that I would know of, and Hebrews would not put their own through this type of slavery.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomer

https://hwaairfan.wordpress.com/2014/01/06/rabbi-admits-jewish-role-in-the-african-slave-trade/

How culpable were Dutch Jews in the slave trade?

http://blackhistory.com/content/262163/jewish-involvement-in-black-slave-trade-to-the-americas

This is More videos PLEASE I JOHN 4: 1 EVERYTHING

Joel Chapter 3

1 For, behold, in those days, and in that time, when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem,

2 I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there for my people and for my heritage Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted my land.

3 And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.

4 Yea, and what have ye to do with me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the coasts of Palestine? will ye render me a recompence? and if ye recompense me, swiftly and speedily will I return your recompence upon your own head;

5 Because ye have taken my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things:

6 The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.

7 Behold, I will raise them out of the place whither ye have sold them, and will return your recompence upon your own head:

8 And I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the children of Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to a people far off: for the LORD hath spoken it.

9 Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up:

10 Beat your plowshares into swords, and your pruninghooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.

11 Assemble yourselves, and come, all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about: thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O LORD.

12 Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.

13 Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness is great.

14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.

15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.

16 The LORD also shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but the LORD will be the hope of his people, and the strength of the children of Israel.

17 So shall ye know that I am the LORD your God dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more.

18 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth of the house of the LORD, and shall water the valley of Shittim.

19 Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the violence against the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land.

20 But Judah shall dwell for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation.

21 For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed: for the LORD dwelleth in Zion.

More evidence ?

http://www.livescience.com/40247-ashkenazi-jews-have-european-genes.html

Revelation 2:9

I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.

http://www.veteranstoday.com/2015/04/10/the-jews-of-khazaria/ ( In veterans magazine)

http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/61.full (oxfords Journals )

http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/jewish-world-news/.premium-1.551825

Revelation 3:9

Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZ4S1sad8Yg   ( New video)

https://youtu.be/hztrAjRXuqg ( New video)

We do not condone racism in any shape or fashion or form it is not of God. that is why all these things happened. We do not agree that Jesus (Yayshiya) is a Mere Prophet. he was born of a virgin conceived by the Holy Spirit who is God. here is another startling video of another Israeli acknowledging this hidden fact. Please use caution with any group that denies Jesus(Yayshiya) as God who come in the flesh. Many have profaned his Holy name among the nations and this is sin  Ezekiel 39:7. We are not !!

earliest depiction of Christ

(Earliest known depiction of Jesus Christ)

 

A team of archeologists from the University of Tel Aviv have uncovered a collection of ancient scrolls in the West Bank region, near the Qumran Caves, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were originally uncovered in 1947, and which promise to shed a new light on the life and physical appearance of Jesus Christ.
The newly found documents which are believed to have been written by a small Jewish sectarian group, called the Essenes, retraces different elements of the Old Testament and New Testament similar to the Dead Sea Scrolls, but scholars have turned their attention to a peculiar fragment which describes the birth of the Christ figure in a new light.

 

The manuscripts that have been dated between 408 BCE to 318 CE describe the son of Mary as of a “darker color” of skin than her parents, a revealing information admits professor Hans Schummer.
The manuscripts that have been dated between 408 BCE to 318 CE shed a new light on the physical appearance of Jesus Christ, admits professor Hans Schummer of the University of Tel Aviv
“It is quite revealing that the unknown author of the document notes with a certain sense of surprise that the infant’s skin tone is darker in color than his mother and father.
“The infant was the color of the night” reads a part of the fragment of the scripture, “In the dark of the night, nothing could be seen of the infant except the white of his eyes” reads another excerpt.

https://youtu.be/MsQ9yODQyyo ( New video)

 Please I John 4:1 Everything 

oldest known painting of Jesus

(Picture of Apostle Peter from the vatican , the catacombs)

https://youtu.be/_btf_Y_ua98 (new video)

Galatians 3:27-29

For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.
There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus
And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise

Could this be Historical confirmation of what Israeli man says? ? ?

Click to access gbe.evs119.full.pdf

https://youtu.be/EU5P2fcBAnw (new video)

Genesis 10:2 – 5

The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

oldest known painting of Christ and disciples

Jeremiah 16:19 

O LORD, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit.

WOW is the article below true ? please research all of this that is presented

http://www.angelfire.com/ill/hebrewisrael/printpages/edomkharzars.html (NEW ARTICLE)

Obadiah 1:16

For as ye have drunk upon my holy mountain, so shall all the heathen drink continually, yea, they shall drink, and they shall swallow down, and they shall be as though they had not been.

Below is a mysterious unexplained typo that is invisible on my edit page so i typed in the words and the scripture above is what I found very unexplainable to me

l they shall be

even more information wow!

Jan 23 2014

 

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of slaves transported to the New World according to written history were NOT NATIVE AFRICANS  from Central and Western and Eastern parts of the continent, in fact these people have been historically proven to be descendants of  EARLY HEBREWS THAT HAD MIGRATED FROM ARABIA AND EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA into West Africa.  These people were attacked and sold by NATIVE AFRICAN TRIBES and Muslims to European slave traders who then transported them to North and South and Central America.To further prove this statement I have obtained written records from Arab and Muslim writers and also medieval African maps written in the 17th century by the conquering Europeans. In the maps are shown geographical locations of Hebrew cities and Kingdoms that were later taken into Slavery.The First medieval African Map was Performed by the Sr. Danville Under the Patronage of the Duke of Orleans.” Revised and Improved by Mr. Bolton(1766)
And another medieval African Map called Negroland and the adjacent countries also UPPER GUINEA showing the principal European Settlements and Distinguishing by Eman Bowen 1747 West Africa
 
1794_Boulton_and_Anville_Wall_Map_of_Africa_(most_important_18th_cntry_map_of_Africa)_-_Geographicus_-_Africa2-boulton-1794
West_Africa_17471On the first map there is a city called Lamlam. In the 12th century Al Idrisi in his book entitled “Description of CENTRAL AFRICA,”  wrote about  a Hebrew colony in West Africa called Lam-Lam,. which was situated about 2 hundred miles West of Timbuktu.

“In the whole land of Lam- lam there are but two small cities, or as it were villages, and those are Malel and Dau, situated at the distance of four days’ journey from each other. Their inhabitants, as people of those parts relate, are JEWS, and most of them unbelieving and ignorant” ——–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of CENTRAL AFRICA

“When any of all the inhabitants of the kingdom of Lamlam comes to have the use of his reason, he is burnt in the face and temples ; this they do to distinguish each other. All their countries and dominions are near a certain river(Niger River), flowing into the Nile. It is not known whether there is any inhabited place to the south of the king dom of Lamlam. That kingdom joins on the west to Mec- zara, on the east to Vancara(Wanagara), on the north to Ghana, and on the south to the desert ; and its people use a different language from those of Meczara and Ghana” ———–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of CENTRAL AFRICA

Al Edrisi mentioned that Hebrews inhabited a area that stretched from an area called Mec- zara, on the east to Vancara(Wanagara), on the north to Ghana, and on the south to the desert. I have a close up look at the area that Edrisi is referring to.

Provindence of Mezcara
Lamlem
Outlined in RED Reads: According to Edrisi the land hereabouts was populated by Jews

Too the far left of the map, There existed a Hebrew Kingdom of Exiled  Falafjam  Jews Called  SHANKALA  Here was the location of SHANKALA  on D’Anville Map of Africa

Kingdom of SHANKALA Falafjam Jews Exiled Danvilles Map of Africa

Outlined in RED
Shankala wandering tribes falafjam Jews Exiled

Al Edrisi also mentioned that the Hebrews that inhabited this area and the adjacent cites called Malel and Dau  were being attacked by native African tribes and sent to Slave Traders and then sent  to Slave Trading centers and then TRADED TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD.

“To the southward of Berissa, at the distance of ten days’ march, lies the land of Lam-lam, into which INCURSIONS are made by the inhabitants of Berissa(Mende), Salla, Takrur( Fulani) , and Ghana ; there they take numbers of captives, whom they carry away to their own countries, and dispose of to the merchants trading thither ; these afterwards sell them into all parts of the world”.———–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of  CENTRAL AFRICA

Another medieval African Map by Eman Bowen 1747 called Negroland shows
upper Guinea and the adjacent countries if you look close towards Guinea to the right of the Gold coast lies the Hebrew kingdom of JUDA of in French it was called Whidah.

WHIDAH

To further prove this statement I have a quote from a scholar named J. Leighton Wilson from the book called J. Leighton Wilson Western Africa  its history, condition and prospects  1856

“Whether the natives of the country have the Jewish distinction between diaboloi and daimonia in Northern Guinea is not certainly known, but the inhabitants of Southern Guinea undoubtedly have.”——–J. Leighton Wilson Western Africa  its history, condition and prospects  1856  p 216

“Mixed up with these pagan nations and customs there are many obvious traces of Judaism, both in Northern and Southern Guinea ; and in the latter, some undoubted traces of a corrupted form of Christianity, which have probably traveled across the continent from ancient Ethiopia, where Christianity was once firmly established.”——- J. Leighton Wilson Western Africa  its history, condition and prospect  p  220

Muslim writers to write about the Hebrews in Africa  and the enslavement of the Hebrews in Africa

One 15th century Hebrew writer named  Leo Africanus  was an Andalusian  Moorish diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa. In this book he wrote about  a POWERFUL HEBREW KINGDOM in the 15th century. This kingdom was located to the right of the Egyptian Nile River. Here is his quote from his book:

“Howbeit they say that upon Nilus do inhabit two great
and populous nations, one of Jews towards the west, under the government of a mightie king”.—–Leo Africanus: The Description of Africa Vol 1 p 32

This Hebrew Kingdom with a mightie king to the right of the Nile river was called Kouko

Here is the Kingdom Kouko from the medieval African Map Performed by the Sr. Danville

Kouko - Powerful Rich Hebrew Kingdom

Leo Africanus As a young man accompanied his uncle on a diplomatic mission to the Maghreb, reaching as far as the city of Timbuktu (c. 1510), then part of the Songhai Empire.

In his book entitled  Descrittione dell’ Africa (Description of Africa) Leo Africanus wrote about the HATRED that the Native Africans had against HEBREWS that lived in West Africa about 500 yrs ago.

This is what he wrote while on his travels into WEST AFRICA in 1526:

“In Garura there were some very rich Jews. The intervention of the preacher (Muhammid al-Maghili) of Tlemcen set up the pillage of their goods, and most of them have been killed by the population. This event took place during the same year when the Jews had been expelled from Spain and Sicily by the Catholic King(1492- 16th Century)

Leo Africanus further wrote:

“The king (Askia) is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods.”

 Posted by at

Luke 21:24
And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

Isaiah 63 King James Version (KJV)

63 Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.

2 Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat?

3 I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment.

4 For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.

5 And I looked, and there was none to help; and I wondered that there was none to uphold: therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me.

6 And I will tread down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth.

7 I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord, and the praises of the Lord, according to all that the Lord hath bestowed on us, and the great goodness toward the house of Israel, which he hath bestowed on them according to his mercies, and according to the multitude of his lovingkindnesses.

8 For he said, Surely they are my people, children that will not lie: so he was their Saviour.

9 In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old.

10 But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them.

11 Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people, saying, Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where is he that put his holy Spirit within him?

12 That led them by the right hand of Moses with his glorious arm, dividing the water before them, to make himself an everlasting name?

13 That led them through the deep, as an horse in the wilderness, that they should not stumble?

14 As a beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest: so didst thou lead thy people, to make thyself a glorious name.

15 Look down from heaven, and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory: where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding of thy bowels and of thy mercies toward me? are they restrained?

16 Doubtless thou art our father, though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not: thou, O Lord, art our father, our redeemer; thy name is from everlasting.

17 O Lord, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear? Return for thy servants’ sake, the tribes of thine inheritance.

18 The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while: our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary.

19 We are thine: thou never barest rule over them; they were not called by thy name.

Please compare information given with Gen 10: 3, Deut 28, Joel 3, Lev 26, the whole chap of Obadiah, Rev 2:9,Rev 3:9 (This post is not to promote hate just expose truth)

 Recommended must reads

The book is an eyeopener but I believe that all men and women are not justified by the works of the law. but by the faith of Jesus Christ.  Galatians 2:16

Special note to the readers of this book from the producers of this book

the negro question book

The Hebrew’s have been scattered throughout the world. The Worldly system has suppressed who the Hebrew’s are for many years. It has been a well-known fact that they were part of the Atlantic slave trade, among other persecutions that have been recorded throughout history. The interesting thing is at some point History has become His-story. People, governments, the education system have gone through great lengths to hide a lot of history. A professor out of Nigeria did an extensive research to locate some of ancient Hebrews. His book called the Ibos has created a lot of controversy, and his book has been rejected to enter into the U.S. One has to reason, why are they not allowing this information out for those that desire to learn more about the people of the scriptures? We have decided to reprint this book and share his research with those who desire to learn about what happen to part of the Hebrews in history. This is not an attack on any race at all. This is to bring some clarity on some things that have been suppressed for years, and to help Israel wake up and understand who they are. This is a must have in your library. We pray this book gives you an appreciation for what this Professor has done in hope to learn some true history. There is more to this story. We will in the future do a revised version of this book to give more history about the ancient Hebrews that has been called the 10 lost tribes, as well as the tribe of Yahudah (Judah)

Book Review  the negro question book

I read this book as soon as I got it the first day the first page was really gripping, with historical evidence. This book even gives evidence that some Universities in the United States hold of this historical fact the information in this book will shock you . I highly recommend this book to everyone, just so you will know the truth.

Historical facts by Hope and Faith Ministries

  • In Ghana, the Hebrews were identified as the Ashantee
  • In Mali, the indigenous people were identifed as the Mandinka, however, they were not Hebrews
  • In Songhay, the city of Timbuktu, which was a great center of education and commerce and many of the indigenous  people were Hebrews
  • Guinea, which was Known as the Gold Coast, also had a significant numbers of Hebrews

The West African Slave Trade

During middle of the 15th century, Europe had entered into the slave trade.  This was the period of the decline of the great Sudanese Empires, which was brought on by the struggle with Arab invaders and tribal wars.  The introduction of gun powder by the Europeans, exasperated the declension of so many of the warring factions.  Now, human life and gold were traded for gun powder and arms.

Under King Charles V and the Catholic Papacy, the treasured and highly prized ‘Papal Bull Asiento’ (a license to enslave Africans) was first issued to the Portuguese.

As early as 1441, Prince Henry the Navigator had entered Africa and by 1481 Portugal had established the first European outpost (Fort Elmina), in Ghana, near the city of Benin.  During this period the Portuguese coined the phrase ‘Negro’ (meaning black).

In the early 17th century (1619) the first twenty Africans arrived in Virginia, as slave laborers for the harvesting of tobacco.  And the rest is history.

Jews of Bilad el-Sudan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Songhai Empire, c. 1500

Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan (אַהַל יַהוּדּ בִּלַדּ אַל סוּדָּן, Judeo-Arabic) describes West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, or Spain and Portugal. Various historical records attest to their presence at one time in the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires, then called the Bilad as-Sudan from the Arabic meaning Land of the Blacks. Jews from Spain, Portugal, and Morocco in later years also formed communities off the coast of Senegal and on the Islands of Cape Verde. These communities continued to exist for hundreds of years but have since disappeared due to changing social conditions, migration, and the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade.

Early history

According to most accounts, the earliest Jewish settlements in Africa were in places such as Egypt, Tunisia,and Morocco. Jews had settled along the Upper Nile at Elephantine in Egypt. These communities were augmented by subsequent arrivals of Jews after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, when 30,000 Jewish slaves were settled throughout Carthage by the Roman emperor Titus.

Africa is identified in various Jewish sources in connection with Tarshish and Ophir.[1] The Septuagint,[2] and Jerome,[3] who was taught by Jews, and very often the Aramaic Targum on the Prophets, identify the Biblical Tarshish with Carthage, which was the birthplace of a number of rabbis mentioned in the Talmud. Africa, in the broader sense, is clearly indicated where mention is made of the Ten Tribes having been driven into exile by the Assyrians and having journeyed into Africa.[4] Connected with this is the idea that the river Sambation is in Africa. The Arabs, who also know the legend of the Beni Musa (“Sons of Moses”), agree with the Jews in placing their land in Africa.

Page from the Tarikh es-Sudan which describes Za/Zuwa Alyaman coming from Yemen and settling in Kukiya.

As early as Roman times, Moroccan Jews had begun to travel inland to trade with groups of Berbers, most of whom were nomads who dwelt in remote areas of the Atlas Mountains. Jews lived side by side with Berbers, forging both economic and cultural ties ;some Berbers even began to practice Judaism. In response, Berber spirituality transformed Jewish ritual, painting it with a belief in the power of demons and saints. When the Muslims swept across the North of Africa, Jews and Berbers defied them together. Across the Atlas Mountains, the legendary Queen Kahina led a tribe of 7th century Berbers, Jews, and other North African ethnic groups in battle against encroaching Islamic warriors.

In the 10th century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad became increasingly hostile to Jews, many Jewish traders there left for the Maghreb, Tunisia in particular. Over the following two to three centuries, a distinctive social group of traders throughout the Mediterranean world became known as the Maghrebi, passing on this identification from father to son.

According to certain local Malian legends a mention in the Tarikh al-Sudan may have recorded the first Jewish presence in West Africa with the arrival of the first Zuwa ruler of Koukiya and his brother, located near the Niger River. He was known only as Za/Zuwa Alayman (meaning “He comes from Yemen”). Some local legends state that Zuwa Alayman was a member of one of the Jewish communities that were either transported or voluntarily moved from Yemen by the Ethiopians in the 6th century C.E. after the defeat of Dhu Nuwas. The Tarikh al-Sudan, states that there were 14 Zuwa rulers of Kukiya after Zuwa Alyaman before the rise of Islam in the region.[5] There is though debate on whether or not the Tarikh es-Soudan can be understand in this manner.

Trade and establishment of communities

Pages from the Tarikh al-fattash, Manuscript C, which describe the Jews/Bani Israeel of Tirdirma.

Manuscript C of the Tarikh al-fattash describes a community called the Bani Israeel that in 1402 CE existed in Tirdirma, possessed 333 wells, and had seven leaders:

  • Jabroot bin-Hashim
  • Thoelyaman bin-Abdel Hakim
  • Zeor bin-Salam
  • Abdel-latif bin-Solayman
  • Malik bin-Ayoob
  • Fadil bin-Mzar
  • Shaleb bin-Yousef

It is also stated that they had an army of 1500 men.[6] Other sources say that other Jewish communities in the region were formed by migrations from Morocco, Egypt, and Portugal. When the Scottish explorer Mungo Park traveled through West Africa in the late 18th century he was informed by an Arab he met near Walata of there being many Arabic speaking Jews in Timbuktu whose prayers were similar to the Moors.[7] Some communities are said to have been populated by certain Berber Jews like a group of Kal Tamasheq known as Iddao Ishaak that traveled from North Africa into West Africa for trade, as well as those escaping the Islamic invasions into North Africa.[8]

Islamic era

In the 14th century many Moors and Jews, fleeing persecution in Spain, migrated south to the Timbuktu area, at that time part of the Songhai Empire. Among them was the Kehath (Ka’ti) family, descended from Ismael Jan Kot Al-yahudi of Scheida, Morocco. Sons of this prominent family founded three villages that still exist near Timbuktu — Kirshamba, Haybomo, and Kongougara. In 1492, Askia Mohammad I came to power in the previously tolerant region of Timbuktu and decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave; Judaism became illegal in Mali, as it did in Catholic Spain that same year. This was based on the advice of Muhammad al-Maghili.

As the historian Leo Africanus wrote in 1526:

“In Garura there were some very rich Jews. The intervention of the preacher (Muhammid al-Maghili) of Tlemcen set up the pillage of their goods, and most of them have been killed by the population. This event took place during the same year when the Jews had been expelled from Spain and Sicily by the Catholic King.”

Leo Africanus further wrote:

“The king (Askia) is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods.”

Jews of the Sahara

There seems to be little doubt that Jewish have largely been mixed with Berbers living in the Moroccan and Algerian Sahara. It is believed that some Berber clans may have been at one time Jews and according to another tradition they are descended from the Philistines driven out of Canaan.[9] There is a tradition that Moses was buried in Tlemçen, and the presence of a large number of Jews in that part of Africa is attested to, not only by the many sacred places and shrines bearing Biblical names which are holy to Muslims as well as to Jews, but also by the presence there of a large number of Jewish sagas.[9] L. Rinn says: “Certain Berber tribes were for a long time of the Jewish religion, especially in Amès; and to-day, even, we see among the Hanensha of Sukahras (Algeria) a semi-nomad tribe of Israelites devoted entirely to agriculture”.[10]

In addition, it may be noticed that Jews are to be found in the Berber “ksurs” (fortified villages) all along southern Morocco and in the adjacent Sahara. Thus, at Outat near Tafilalt there is a mellah with about 500 Jews;[11] and at Figuig, a mellah with 100 Jews.[11] Going farther south to Tuat, there is a large community of Jews in the oasis of Alhamada; and at Tamentit, a two weeks’ journey from Tafilalt, the 6,000 or 8,000 inhabitants are said to be descendants of Jews converted to Islam.[11] Even much farther to the west, in the province of Sus, there is Ogulmin with 3,000 inhabitants, of whom 100 are said to be Jews.

Daggatun connection

Caravan approaching Timbuktu in 1853 (from Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa by Prof. Dr. Heinrich Barth, vol. iv, London 1858)

The Daggatuns were a nomadic tribe of Jewish origin living in the neighborhood of Tamentit, in the oasis of Tuat in the Moroccan Sahara. An account of the Daggatun was first given by Rabbi Mordechai Abi Serour of Akka (Morocco), who in 1857 journeyed through the Sahara to Timbuctu, and whose account of his travels was published in the “Bulletin de la Société de Géographie”.[12] According to Rabbi Sarur, the Daggatun lived in tents and resembled the Berber Kel Tamesheq (Tuareg), among whom they live, in language, religion, and general customs. They are subject to the Tuaregs, who do not intermarry with them. Rabbi Sarur also states that their settlement in the Sahara dates from the end of the 7th century (Muslim chronology) when ‘Abd al-Malik ascended the throne and conquered as far as Morocco. At Tamentit he tried to convert the inhabitants to Islam; and as the Jews offered great resistance he exiled them to the desert of Ajaj, as he did also the Tuaregs, who had only partially accepted Islam. Cut off from any connection with their brethren, these Jews in the Sahara gradually lost their Jewish practises and became nominally Muslims.

Other accounts place a group of “Arabs” driven to Ajaj as being identified with the Mechagra mentioned by Erwin von Bary,[13] among whom a few Jews are said still to dwell there. Victor J. Horowitz[14] also speaks of many free tribes in the desert regions who are Jews by origin, but who have gradually thrown off Jewish customs and have apparently accepted Islam. Among these tribes, he says, are the Daggatun, numbering several thousands and scattered over several oases in the Sahara, even as far as the River Dialiva (Djoliba?) or Niger. He says, also, that they are very warlike and in constant conflict with the Tuareg. According to Horowitz, the Mechagra mentioned above are also to be reckoned as one of these Jewish tribes. Horowitz had never been to Africa, but relied mainly on rumours spread in the European Jewish community.

Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour and the last Timbuktu community

Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour circa 1870s – 1880s. Last Rabbi of Timbuktu.

Former Timbuktu house and synagogue of Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour used circa 1870’s – 1880’s.

Rabbi Mordechai Abi Serour, with his brother Yitzhaq, came from Morocco in 1859 to be a trader in Timbuktu. At the time of Rabbi Serour’s bold enterprise, direct trade relations with the interior of west Africa (then known to them as Sudan) were monopolized by Muslim merchants. Non-Muslims were precluded from this trade because Arab merchants were determined to forestall encroachments upon their lucrative business.[15]

As a man of cosmopolitan experience, he was well suited to be a merchant in that time and place. He was clever, shrewd, articulate, audacious, and most important he knew Koranic law as well as most learned Muslims.[16] Throughout his travels to Timbuktu Rabbi Serour preferred to have most of his merchandise transported across the Sahara by bejaoui. The term, bejaoui, refers to single or small groups of camels that carried travelers sometimes without merchandise or baggage, and were accompanied by indigenous guides.[17]

As a Jew, he couldn’t set up his trading business, so he appealed to the regional ruler, who at that time was a Fulani Emir, and negotiated dhimmi, or protected people status. Between 1860 to 1862 Rabbi Serour and his brother Yitzhaq were able to become successful and they became well known in the area. After earning a small fortune, Rabbi Serour returned to Morocco in 1863.[18] He gave his father a large sum of money and talked his other brothers into joining him on his next venture to Timbuktu. In 1864, the Jewish colony in Timbuktu had reason to rejoice since by the end of the year they had eleven adult male Jews in residence. This was significant since it meant that they could form a minyan and establish a synagogue. They were:[19][20]

  • Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour
  • Mordechai’s brothers Esau, Avraham, and Yitzhaq
  • Esau’s sons Aharon and David
  • Aharon’s son Yitzhaq
  • Moussa (Mordechai’s brother in law)
  • Moussa’s son David
  • Rabbi Raphael
  • Shimon Ben-Yaaqov

Cape Verde

Manuel I in 1496, decided to exile thousands of Jews to São Tomé, Príncipe, and Cape Verde. The numbers expelled at this time were so great that the term “Portuguese” almost implied those of Jewish origin. Those who were not expelled were converted by force or executed. During the early 19th century, Jews also came to settle in Santo Antão where there are still traces of their influx in the name of the village of Sinagoga, located on the north coast between Riberia Grande and Janela, and in the Jewish cemetery at the town of Ponta da Sol. A final chapter of Jewish history in Cape Verde took place in the 1850s when Moroccan Jews arrived, especially in Boa Vista and Maio for the hide trade.[21]

Emergence of Arabic records in Timbuktu

Records of the Jewish history of Mali can still be found in the Kati Andalusi library. Ismael Diadie Haidara, a historian from Timbuktu, possesses old Arabic and Hebrew texts among the city’s historical records.[22] He has also researched his own past and discovered that he is descended from the Moroccan Jewish traders of the Abana family. As he interviewed elders in the villages of his relatives, he has discovered that knowledge of the family’s Jewish identity has been preserved, in secret, out of fear of persecution.

Recently there has come to light the personal library of the first Mahmoud Kati, which was handed down through his descendants and added to through at least the mid-17th century. This extraordinary “discovery” was made a by a young Malian historian, Ismaël Diadié Haïdara, a member of the Kati clan, and author of several books, including L’Espagne musulmane et l’Afrique subsaharienne (1997), and Les Juifs de Tombouctou (1999). The library is currently in the possession of two branches of the Kati clan in the village of Kirshamba about 100 miles to the west of Timbuktu. Up to 1,700 out of an estimated 2,000 manuscripts in the library have been examined and evaluated by Abdul Kader Haïdara, the Timbuktu-based expert in Arabic manuscripts and guardian of the Mamma Haidara Memorial Library currently being rehabilitated through a grant from the Mellon Foundation.[23]

The trading documents referred to three families in particular: the Kehath family (Ka’ti) that came from southern Morocco and converted with the rest of the population in 1492; the Cohen family descended from the Moroccan Jewish trader al-Hajj Abd al-Salam al Kuhin, who arrived in the Timbuktu area in the 18th century; and the Abana family, which came in the first half of the 19th century.[24]

See also

References

  1. Tamid, 32b, and the parallel passage, where, “African land”, is evidently the same as Carthage
  2. Isaiah 23:1
  3. on Ezekiel 25:7
  4. Mek., Bo, 17; Tosef., Shab. vii. 25; Deut. R. v. 14; and especially Sanh. 94a
  5. Tarikh es-Soudan, Paris, 1900, by Abderrahman ben-Abdall es-Sadi (trad. O. Houdas) pages 5-10
  6. Tarikh al-fattash, by Mahmoud Kati ben El-Hajj El Motaoukkal Kati, 1657, pages 62-63
  7. Jews of a Saharan Oasis: Elimination of the Tamantit Community, Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, New Jersey, 2006, by John Hunwick. page 67
  8. Primak, Karen. Jews in Places You Never Thought of. Ktav Publishing. ISBN 0-88125-608-0.
  9. Basset, “Nedromah,”p. 13
  10. “Origines Berbers”, p. 406 (see “Rev. Arch. de Constantine”, 1867, p. 102)
  11. Horowitz, l.c. p. 202,204,205
  12. Dec., 1895; see “Bulletin de l’Alliance Israèlite” vol. ii. 42, 1880; “La Grand Encyclopedie”, xxiii. 254; James Edward Budgett-Meakin, Land of the Moors, p.17
  13. “Ghat et les Tuareg de l’Air”, p. 181
  14. Marokko., Leipzig 1887, pp. 58 seq.
  15. God’s Will The Travels of Rabbi Mordochai Abi Serour, by Dr. Sanford H. Bederman, GSU Department of Geography Research Series, 1980, page 9
  16. Ibed. page 7
  17. Ibed. page 10
  18. Ibed. page 14
  19. Ibed. page 15
  20. Les Juifs à Tombouctou, or Jews of Timbuktu, Recueil de sources écrites relatives au commerce juif à Tombouctou au XIXe siècle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999 by Professor Ismael Diadie Haidara, page 31
  21. Jews in Cape Verde and on the Guinea Coast, Paper presented at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, February 11, 1996, by Richard Lobban
  22. The Renewal of Jewish Identity in Timbuktu, by Karen Primack
  23. The Kati Library, Saharan Studies Association
  24. The Jews of Timbuktu, by Rick Gold, Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999

Further reading

General

  • Wars of the Jews: A Military History from Biblical to Modern Times, Hipporcrene Books, New York, 1990, by Monroe Rosenthal and Isaac Mozeson
  • Jewish Communities in Exotic Places, Jason Aronson Inc., Jerusalem, by Ken Blady
  • Jews In Africa: Ancient Black African Relations, Fact Paper 19-II, By Samuel Kurinsky
  • Hebrewisms of West Africa: From Nile to Niger With the Jews, The Dial Press, New York, 1931, by Joseph J. Williams
  • Jews of a Saharan Oasis: Elimination of the Tamantit Community, Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, New Jersey, 2006, by John Hunwick

Mali and Songhay

  • Jews in Africa: Part 1 The Berbers and the Jews, by Sam Timinsky (Hebrew History Federation)
  • The Jews of Timbuktu, Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999, by Rick Gold
  • Les Juifs à Tombouctou, or Jews of Timbuktu, Recueil de sources écrites relatives au commerce juif à Tombouctou au XIXe siècle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999 by Professor Ismael Diadie Haidara

Cape Verde and Guinea Coast

  • Jews in Cape Verde and on the Guinea Coast, Paper presented at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, February 11, 1996, by Richard Lobban

External links

Timbuktu

Northern Africa

Cape Verde

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