The Lemba Tribe is Bantu and Ancient Hebrews And So Are The African Americans

lamba of south africa

(Picture of the Lemba tribe)

The Lemba was known to have original and stronger Ancient Levite Hebrew blood than the people who are in Israel today the interesting thing is that these people are in the same haplogroup as present day so called African Americans both are bantu here is the scientific evidence of it. People have told great lies to hide the fact that they share the same haplogroup as African Americans for some unknown reason

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemba_people

African American Roots: What Genetics Can Reveal

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan

Click to access HaploJ.pdf

Majority of black Americans are of the E1b1a haplogroups this is Bantu and so are the Lemba. Lemba are descendants of the Prophet Aaron tribe of Levi. This was the brother of Moses. Lemba are not Haplogroup J Haplogroup J is European. Bantu’s are E1b1a they come from Haplogroup E

igbos of nigeria

Like their brothers in the above picture, The Ibos of Nigeria, related to the blacks of America through the slave trade. They are bantu’s as well.

Here is an article from European Journal below that will interest many.

European Journal of Human Genetics (2013) 21, 423–429; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.176; published online 15 August 2012

Evidence from Y-chromosome analysis for a late exclusively eastern expansion of the Bantu-speaking people

Naser Ansari Pour1, Christopher A Plaster1 and Neil Bradman1

1The Centre for Genetic Anthropology, Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK

Correspondence: Dr N Ansari Pour, The Centre for Genetic Anthropology, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Tel: +44 20 73549163; Fax: +44 20 81816991; E-mail: naser.pour@ucl.ac.uk

Received 21 December 2011; Revised 7 June 2012; Accepted 6 July 2012
Advance online publication 15 August 2012

Top

Abstract

The expansion of the Bantu-speaking people (EBSP) during the past 3000–5000 years is an event of great importance in the history of humanity. Anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and, in recent decades, genetics have been used to elucidate some of the events and processes involved. Although it is generally accepted that the EBSP has its origin in the so-called Bantu Homeland situated in the area of the border between Nigeria and the Grassfields of Cameroon, and that it followed both western and eastern routes, much less is known about the number and dates of those expansions, if more than one. Mitochondrial, Y-chromosome and autosomal DNA analyses have been carried out in attempts to understand the demographic events that have taken place. There is an increasing evidence that the expansion was a more complex process than originally thought and that neither a single demographic event nor an early split between western and eastern groups occurred. In this study, we analysed unique event polymorphism and short tandem repeat variation in non-recombining Y-chromosome haplogroups contained within the E1b1a haplogroup, which is exclusive to individuals of recent African ancestry, in a large, geographically widely distributed, set of sub-Saharan Africans (groups=43, n=2757), all of whom, except one Nilo-Saharan-speaking group, spoke a Niger-Congo language and most a Bantu tongue. Analysis of diversity and rough estimates of times to the most recent common ancestors of haplogroups provide evidence of multiple expansions along eastern and western routes and a late, exclusively eastern route, expansion.

Keywords:

Africa; Bantu expansion; Y chromosome; E1b1a; TMRCA

Top

Introduction

The early development of agriculture triggered significant population growth, resulting in the expansion of early farming populations, along with the spread of language families in many parts of the world, including Africa.1 The many advantages of agricultural subsistence over foraging is a likely contributing factor to the rapid expansion of agriculturists and their languages during the holocene.2 A well-known example of this phenomenon in Africa is the expansion of the Bantu-speaking people (EBSP), which is thought, on the basis of linguistic evidence, to have started around 5000 years ago3 in the region on the border between modern day eastern Nigeria and Cameroon.4 It is widely accepted that there was an early split into eastern and western routes in which farmers first expanded east and also, within 1500 years, reached West-Central Africa. After that the expansion is thought to have taken two directions with one wave moving along the south-western coast (West-Bantu route) and the other moving further east, forming the eastern Bantu core by 3000 years before present (YBP). Subsequently, the expansion is thought to have continued along the south-eastern coast (East-Bantu route).5 In an alternative model, the split came later after passage through the rain forest.3, 4 The Bantu language family is distributed throughout most of sub-equatorial Africa and is the continent’s largest, both in terms of the numbers of individuals speaking it and its geographic spread.2, 6, 7 This level of linguistic homogeneity among geographically distant populations across sub-Saharan Africa supports the suggestion of rapid expansion. Because of the separation of the two major waves around 3500 YBP and the subsequent isolation of many groups, modern Bantu languages can be divided into West and East Bantu.8, 9 Non-Bantu languages (that do not belong to the Niger-Congo phylum, eg, Khoisanid languages in the southwest of the continent and a few Cushitic and Nilo-Saharan tongues in the northeast6) have survived in areas that have not experienced extensive inward migration of Bantu speakers. It is also suggested that although the Bantu-speaking agriculturists may have replaced, to a substantial extent, hunter gatherers in their path, they have also, in some places, co-existed and interbred with the original inhabitants.2

Archaeological evidence suggests that the early expansion of proto-Bantu speakers was associated with pre-Iron Age farming technology and did not involve smelting metals.3 The first evidence of metallurgy south of the Sahara was found at Nok in Nigeria and is dated to no earlier than 2500 YBP.10 Therefore, it is possible that with the aid of the new technology, further expansions may have occurred after the first dispersal of farmers. Because the Bantu languages on the eastern route are more homogeneous than those on the western route,11 it is reasonable to speculate that later expansions occurred mainly on the eastern route.

Early genetic studies of Bantu-speaking people were based on classical gene frequency data. Attempts were made to identify genetic relationships among EBSP groups in the context of Africa as a whole10, 11 (also see Supplementary Figure S112). The major finding of these studies was that genetic distances (FST) among all EBSP groups are much less than the average FST among West-African and Nilo-Saharan groups, indicating a considerable level of homogeneity among EBSP groups. More recently, based on over 1300 autosomal markers, Tishkoff et al13 showed that Bantu-speaking groups exhibit a considerable level of genetic similarity, a finding which is in good agreement with earlier studies mentioned above. The EBSP impact on African demography has, over the past decade, also been studied by analysing paternal and maternal sex-specific genetic systems (non-recombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)). As both NRY and mtDNA genetic systems have smaller effective population sizes than autosomal markers, they are more prone to genetic drift14, 15, 16 and are therefore more likely to differ among groups than are autosomal markers. However, because each is, in effect, a single linked locus, interpreting observed differences among groups must be undertaken with a high level of caution. The control region of the mtDNA sequence, due to its high mutation rate, has been extensively used in examining the impact of EBSP on the genetic landscape of sub-Saharan Africa.5, 17, 18, 19 It has been postulated that some mtDNA haplogroups (eg, L3b, L3e and L2a), based on their distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, are associated with the EBSP, whereas the presence of haplogroup L1c at high frequency in some populations on the western route is thought to be the result of assimilation of local female hunter gatherers.17 It has been suggested that because agriculturist men are more likely to marry local women rather than vice versa,15, 16 the maternal genetic profile of Bantu-speaking groups is marked by considerable diversity. Despite this level of diversity, however, there is a high level of similarity between groups.20

The increase in the rate of identification of slowly mutating NRY binary markers (ie, unique event polymorphisms (UEPs))21, 22, 23 has resulted in many studies designed to investigate the paternally mediated genetic relationships of sub-Saharan African populations. Scozzari et al24 and Underhill et al25 found UEP (M2 and its analogues such as DYS271G) present at high frequencies specifically in sub-Saharan Africa and suggested this marker as a signature of EBSP. Since then, this marker (now defining the E1b1a haplogroup) has been typed in many groups across sub-Saharan Africa19, 26, 27, 28 and, without exception, all studies have shown that the majority of NRY types in Bantu-speaking groups belong to this haplogroup. Although sampling in most NRY studies of sub-Saharan Africa has, in the past, been quite limited in terms of geographic coverage and sample sizes, the distribution of this haplogroup is relatively well described in groups living along both the postulated western and eastern routes of the EBSP, as well as in Senegal29 and Cameroon27, 30 in West Africa. Interestingly, de Filippo et al31 recently reported differences in the frequencies of haplogroups E1b1a and E1b1a7 between Bantu and Non-Bantu Niger-Congo speakers. As the EBSP shows a clearer genetic legacy in the paternally inherited genetic system compared with mtDNA (evident from high and similar frequencies of E1b1a) in sub-Saharan Africa,32 it is possible that, as suggested by de Filippo et al,31 fine-scale E1b1a typing of Bantu-speaking communities throughout sub-Saharan Africa may add more structure to the geographic distribution of haplogroups. This, we hypothesise, may shed light on routes taken during their expansion.

Pakendorf et al7 in a recent review of the contribution made by molecular genetic analysis to the study of EBSP concluded that patrilocality and possibly polygyny may have contributed to NRY, but not mtDNA, association with linguistic affinity. They note that in studies to date, Eastern African groups are greatly underrepresented but essential for investigating the direction of expansion. They further observe that the lack of genetic data makes it premature to reach sweeping conclusions concerning the EBSP.

In this study, we analyse, as did Alves et al,33 both UEP and short tandem repeat (STR) (in this study restricted to NRY) to show that geographic frequency distributions and the time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) of haplogroups, comprising haplogroup E1b1a in 43 sub-Saharan African groups (n=2757) with diverse linguistic affiliations (Supplementary Figure S1), reveal multiple waves of expansion from West Africa, with a late expansion along the eastern route but not the western. As a consequence, this study makes an important contribution to filling the gap. Pakendorf et al7 identify and provide evidence of greater complexity in the process of the EBSP as suggested by Alves et al33 and Montano et al.34

Top

Materials and methods

Samples

Buccal swabs were collected from males >18 years old unrelated at the paternal grandfather level but otherwise randomly selected from 43 groups across sub-Saharan Africa (Supplementary Table S1, samples from Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon were included in Veeramah et al (2010)35 and from South Africa in Thomas et al (2000)36). These locations mainly cover West, Central-West, East, South-East and South Africa. All of the groups characterised in this study speak a Niger-Congo language, except for the Anuak in south-west Ethiopia who speak a Nilo-Saharan language. All buccal swabs were collected anonymously with appropriate ethical approval and informed consent. Sociological data were also collected from most individuals, including age, current residence, birthplace, self-declared cultural identity, first language, second language and (when available) religion of the individual, as well as similar information on the individual’s father, mother, paternal grandfather and maternal grandmother. The samples were classified into groups primarily by cultural identity, first language spoken and then by place of collection. Where collections from a particular group were made in more than one location, locations are represented by averages of geographic coordinates. DNA from Congolese samples was extracted using the Gentra protein precipitation method (Gentra Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Previously collected buccal-swab DNA samples from ethnic groups across sub-Saharan Africa were extracted by the standard phenol-chloroform method. The range and mean of sample sizes of the 43 groups are 25–118 and 63, respectively.

Y-chromosome typing

A combination of UEPs and STRs in the paternally inherited NRY was typed in eight Congolese groups (n=591). The polymorphic markers are six STRs (DYS19, DYS388, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) and four UEPs (M191, U175, U290 and U181) characterising the E1b1a haplogroup, which is modal in most population groups within the area of the EBSP.25 The four UEPs were typed using a tetra primer ARMS PCR method37 with minor modifications. The outer and two inner fragments were amplified in a 10-μl reaction volume containing 1μl (~1ng) of template DNA, 1.6μl (50uM) dNTPs, 9.3nM TaqStart monoclonal antibody (BD Biosciences Clontech, Oxford, UK), 0.13U of Taq polymerase (HT Biotech, Cambridge, UK) and outer and inner primers (see Supplementary Table S2 for primer details). All samples (96-well plates) were then placed on a thermocycler under the following conditions: denaturation at 95°C for 5min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation (95°C) for 45s, annealing (see Supplementary Table S2 for annealing temperatures) for 45s and elongation (72°C) for 45s. The final step of the PCR programme was a 7-min extension at 72°C before a 30min hold at 4°C. Where samples were ancestral for the four UEP markers, a further six to eleven UEPs (UEP1 and UEP2 kits: sY81, SRY4064, YAP, SRY10831, M13, M9, SRY465, M20, Tat, 92R7 and M17) were typed.38 NRY haplogroups were classified according to the nomenclature of the Y-Chromosome Consortium39 (Figure 1) and STR repeat sizes were assigned according to the nomenclature of Kayser et al.40 Additionally, the four E1b1a-specific UEPs were typed in 1820 samples, previously characterised as E1b1a in the TCGA database (published35, 36 and unpublished data), from the 35 non-Congo, sub-Saharan groups listed in Supplementary Table S1. Although the battery of the NRY markers typed in UEP kits gives a relatively crude resolution of NRY haplogroups, the typing of four UEP markers within E1b1a considerably increases the resolution of NRY types associated with EBSP.32

Figure 1.

Figure 1 - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact help@nature.com or the authorGenealogical relationships of UEP markers used to define NRY haplogroups. The box identifies the E1b1a clade, exclusively observed in population groups with recent African ancestry.

Full figure and legend (49K)

 

Statistical analysis

Haplotype diversity, h, and its SE were estimated from unbiased formulae of Nei41 and was performed using Arlequin software version 3.0.42 Average squared difference (ASD) in STR allele size between all chromosomes and the presumed ancestral haplotype (assumed to be the modal haplotype), averaged over loci, were estimated using YTIME software,43 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated as described in Thomas et al44 using the ‘R’ environment of statistical computing (www.R-project.org). The TMRCA was estimated using an average NRY STR mutation rate of 0.00245 and generation time of 25 years. The Fisher’s exact test was also performed in the R environment. The probability of observing a particular haplotype, if present, in a randomly collected set was assessed by the equation (1−q)n=(1−P), where P is the probability of observing the haplotype, q is the minimum frequency of the haplotype to be observed and n is the number of chromosomes. According to the equation, the minimum frequency at which a haplotype is present for it to have a 95% probability of being observed, given that n chromosomes are typed, is q=1−10(log(0.05)/n).

Top

Results

Of the possible 17 haplogroups, 12 were observed in the complete data set with haplogroup E1b1a modal (0.847, range in population groups 0.389–0.957), both overall and in every sub-Saharan African group. Only two other haplogroups exceeded 5% of the total: BT* (xDE,KT) (7.5%) and E* (xE1b1a) (5.1%). Table 1 reports the frequencies of all observed haplogroups, including the component haplogroups of E1b1a. Haplogroup E1b1a7 or E1b1a8* is modal in all groups with the exception of Bankim (Cameroon) and Fante (Ghana). The pooled frequencies of E1b1a component haplogroups, based on their geographic locations, are also shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Figure 2 - Unfortunately we are unable to provide accessible alternative text for this. If you require assistance to access this image, please contact help@nature.com or the authorVisual representation of the distribution of E1b1a component haplogroups in sub-Saharan African groups with sample totals. Sectors in pie charts are coloured according to the haplogroup colour code to the left. Sample sizes are indicated within the pie charts. Samples in the Congolese data set have been divided into three pie charts representing Bantu H, B and C speakers.

Full figure and legend (86K)

 

 

All haplogroups within E1b1a were observed in the Bantu Homeland, West-Central Africa, East Africa and Ghana, whereas haplogroup E1b1a8a1a, although present in the Bantu Homeland and East Africa, was not observed in either Ghana or West-Central Africa.

Diversity (h) of E1b1a was calculated at the five component-haplogroup level ranged from 0.379 to 0.753, excluding the Anuak (h=0). For comparison, the NRY haplotype diversity treating E1b1a as a single haplogroup ranged from 0.821 to 0.945, with the exception of Anuak who displayed a much lower diversity (h=0.516).

The EBSP six-STR haplotype was modal in 36 out of the 43 groups (see Supplementary Table S3) and was almost always a member of E1b1a8 (frequency of 96.4%, P<0.0001). Table 2 contains the six-STR haplotype gene diversities for E1b1a component haplogroups present in all three West, West-Central and East-Central regions.

 

The TMRCA for each haplogroup-defining UEP (with at least 20 chromosomes) is presented in Table 3 along with regions and countries within which each haplogroup was observed. The finer branches of the genealogical tree were associated with lower estimates of TMRCA (Figure 1). TMRCA for E1b1a as a whole was estimated at 6175–6588 YBP with the TMRCA for the youngest haplogroup (E1b1a8a1a) estimated at 1100–1638 YBP.

Top

Discussion

We analyse frequencies of halpogroups and estimates of TMRCA to answer two questions: (a) Is there evidence of more than one ‘expansion’ of paternal line ancestors of Bantu-speaking people living in present day sub-Saharan Africa? and (b) If so, did those ‘expansions’ take different routes? We define ‘expansion’ in this context to mean diffusion of alleles. In doing so, we assume (a) that the NRY has a genealogy that, at least in that part of the genealogical tree analysed in this paper, can be unambiguously constructed using UEP polymorphisms47 (Figure 2) and (b) ASD is a measure of STR diversity that increases linearly over time and that calculating ASD from the common ancestor of a random sample of NRY that are members of a haplogroup provides an estimate of the TMRCA.43 Consistent with previous studies, we observed a high frequency modal of six-STR NRY haplotype (DYS19, 388, 390, 391, 392, 393:15–12–21–10–11–13) throughout the area of the EBSP.26, 35, 36 Interpreting the frequencies of the component haplogroups of E1b1a within the context of their geographic distribution and TMRCA values throws additional light on the expansions associated with the EBSP. These data are consistent with multiple expansion events southwards from West Africa. Haplogroup E1b1a7 (defined by M191) is modal in most groups in countries from Ghana to Mozambique and only at slightly lower frequency in South African Bantu speakers (33.8% compared with E1b1a8* at 37.8%). The TMRCA at 4700–5300 YBP is entirely consistent with the haplogroup being present in West Africa at the dawn of the EBSP. It is likely to have expanded south as the demographic events comprising the EBSP took place. The haplogroup E1b1a8, defined by U175, has a TMRCA of only 1863–2163 YBP but a geographic distribution, excepting the Anuak of Ethiopia, which is equally extensive as that of E1b1a7. If it is assumed that an earlier expansion had already taken place, this would be consistent with a subsequent, rapid expansion from West Africa southwards along both the western and eastern routes. This is consistent with the analysis of de Filippo et al,31 which is also supportive of a rapid expansion. It is interesting to speculate on the possibility that this later expansion was associated with the contemporaneous development of metallurgy.

The distribution of haplogroup E1b1a8a1* defined by U290 in the absence of U181 with a TMRCA of 1413–1725 YBP is similar to that of E1b1a8 and may be interpreted in the same way. The distribution of haplogroup E1b1a8a1a (defined by U181) with a very recent TMRCA of only 1100–1638 YBP is very different, however, being restricted to Nigeria and the east side of sub-Saharan Africa (Figure 2). As a consequence it is consistent with a late, rapid expansion from south of the Grassfields of Cameroon that did not include expansion along the earlier western route. Because the West-Central African E1b1a data set is sufficiently large (n=516; eight groups), we would have expected to observe the E1b1a8a1a haplotype, if present at a frequency as low as 0.0058. Therefore, it is unlikely that the absence of this haplogroup is due to drift after the initial stage of expansion when only a small number of individuals may have been involved or is simply not being observed in the present study. We note that the phenomenon of surfing can explain the absence of an allele in only some groups that are the consequence of range expansion.48, 49 However ,unless the allele (in this case NRY belonging to haplogroup E1b1a8a1a) became extinct early in the western route expansion (which is, in effect, the same as not having been part of that expansion), there is no reason to suppose that extinction of the haplogroup in western route groups (Guthrie classification H, B and C) was more likely than in eastern groups (Guthrie classification N and P). See Supplementary Table S4 for Guthrie classifications of all Bantu-speaking groups included in the analysis. In this study, haplogroup E1b1a8a1a, the haplogroup with the shortest TMRCA, was observed in all eastern data sets (three from Malawi, one from Mozambique (in both cases, all speakers of Guthrie classification Bantu languages N and P spoken on the eastern side of Africa) and one from Pretoria, n (samples)=18) but in none of the eight western groups (all speakers of Guthrie classification Bantu languages H, B and C spoken on the western side of Africa) (Fisher’s exact test: haplogroup present/absent in data set P=0.0008; haplogroup frequency P<0.0001). Comparisons made without including data sets from South Africa and Mozambique, so as to exclude the possibility of admixture between western and eastern Bantu-speaking expansions in the southern extremity of the continent, remain significant for both presence/absence of E1b1a8a1a in data sets and for frequency of the haplogroup (P<0.01). The genetic data are thus in broad agreement with analysis based on linguistic studies, which suggests that the spread of Bantu languages is the consequence of successive dispersals and that a single large-scale migration by Bantu speakers is unlikely.3 It is also consistent with suggestions that differences between eastern and western Bantu languages are a consequence of expansion patterns.3 This interpretation suggests the absence of substantial male-mediated gene flow from East-Central Africa to West-Central Africa during the past millennium, because had it occurred, it would be expected that examples of haplogroup E1b1a8a1a would have been observed in the Congolese groups included in this study. Further support for the EBSP origin from the Nigeria/Cameroon area comes from the observation that E1b1a component-haplogroup STR diversities are greater in West Africa than in either West-Central or East-Central Africa (Table 2).

Recently, Alves et al33 analysing a battery of 14 DIPSTRs (ie, deletion/insertion polymorphisms tightly linked to STRs) in 19 Bantu-speaking groups from Mozambique and Angola concluded that it is becoming increasingly difficult to accept models, suggesting an early split between eastern and western Bantu-speaking populations, whereas Montano et al34 analysing NRY UEPs and STRs in groups from Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon and Congo concluded that the evolutionary scenario is more complex than previously thought. Our analysis of NRY from groups over a wide geographic area is consistent with both these conclusions.

We conclude that analysis of NRY in 43 widely distributed population groups from across sub-Saharan Africa provides evidence of multiple expansions from West Africa along the western and eastern routes and a late specifically eastern expansion at some time during the past two millennia during a period in which male-mediated gene flow from East-Central to West-Central Africa does not appear to have taken place, at least to any significant extent. Future studies that examine variation in the NRY E1b1a clade in Bantu-speaking population groups representing the East African coast will help to further elucidate the late eastern EBSP.

Top

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Top

Further Historical documentation proves the fact that Black Americans are from the tribe of Judah. below are Maps of the slave coast made in 1747 this is historically documented.

References

  1. Bellwood P: Early agriculturalist population diasporas? Farming, languages, and genes. Annu Rev Anthropol 2001; 30: 181–207. | Article |
  2. Diamond J, Bellwood P: Farmers and their languages: the first expansions. Science 2003; 300: 597–603. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  3. Vansina J: New Linguistic Evidence and ‘the Bantu Expansion’. J Afr Hist 1995; 36: 173–195. | Article |
  4. Newman JL: The Peopling of Africa: A Geographic Interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
  5. Pereira L, Macaulay V, Torroni A, Scozzari R, Prata MJ, Amorim A: Prehistoric and historic traces in the mtDNA of Mozambique: insights into the Bantu expansions and the slave trade. Ann Hum Genet 2001; 65: 439–458. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  6. Nurse D: Bantu languages; in Brown K, (ed): Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd, 2006, pp 679–685.
  7. Pakendorf B, Bostoen K, de Filippo C: Molecular perspectives on the Bantu expansion: a synthesis. Lang Dyn Change 2011; 1: 50–88. | Article |
  8. Holden CJ: Bantu language trees reflect the spread of farming across sub-Saharan Africa: a maximum-parsimony analysis. Proc R Soc Lond B 2002; 793–799. | Article | PubMed | ISI |
  9. Jobling MA, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C: Human Evolutionary Genetics: Origins. People and Disease. Abingdon: Garland Science, 2004.
  10. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A: The History and Geography of Human Genes. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994.
  11. Excoffier L, Pellegrini A, Langaney A: Genetics and history of sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol 1987; 30: 151–194. | Article |
  12. Lewis MP: Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas: SIL International, 2009.
  13. Tishkoff SA, Reed FA, Friedlaender FR et al. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans. Science 2009; 324: 1035–1044. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  14. Roewer L, Kayser M, de Knijff P et al. A new method for the evaluation of matches in non-recombining genomes: application to Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes in European males. Forensic Sci Int 2000; 114: 31–43. | Article | PubMed |
  15. Destro-Bisol G, Donati F, Coia V et al. Variation of female and male lineages in sub-Saharan populations: the importance of sociocultural factors. Mol Biol Evol 2004; 21: 1673–1682. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  16. Wood ET, Stover DA, Ehret C et al. Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. Eur J Hum Genet 2005; 13: 867–876. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  17. Salas A, Richards M, De la FT et al. The making of the African mtDNA landscape. Am J Hum Genet 2002; 71: 1082–1111. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  18. Salas A, Richards M, Lareu MV et al. The African diaspora: mitochondrial DNA and the Atlantic slave trade. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 454–465. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  19. Beleza S, Gusmao L, Amorim A et al. The genetic legacy of western Bantu migrations. Hum Genet 2005; 117: 366–375. | Article | PubMed | CAS |
  20. Castri L, Tofanelli S, Garagnani P et al. mtDNA variability in two Bantu-speaking populations (Shona and Hutu) from Eastern Africa: implications for peopling and migration patterns in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009; 140: 302–311. | Article | PubMed |
  21. Hammer MF: A recent common ancestry for human Y chromosomes. Nature 1995; 378: 376–378. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  22. Underhill PA, Jin L, Lin AA et al. Detection of numerous Y chromosome biallelic polymorphisms by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Genome Res 1997; 7: 996–1005. | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  23. Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA et al. Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nat Genet 2000; 26: 358–361. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  24. Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Santolamazza P et al. Combined use of biallelic and microsatellite Y-chromosome polymorphisms to infer affinities among African populations. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 65: 829–846. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  25. Underhill PA, Passarino G, Lin AA et al. The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations. Ann Hum Genet 2001; 65: 43–62. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  26. Pereira L, Gusmao L, Alves C et al. Bantu and European Y-lineages in sub-Saharan Africa. Ann Hum Genet 2002; 66: 369–378. | Article | PubMed | CAS |
  27. Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Shen P et al. A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 2002; 70: 1197–1214. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  28. Coelho M, Sequeira F, Luiselli D, Beleza S, Rocha J: On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola. BMC Evol Biol 2009; 9: 80. | Article | PubMed |
  29. Semino O, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Falaschi F, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA: Ethiopians and Khoisan share the deepest clades of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny. Am J Hum Genet 2002; 70: 265–268. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  30. Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M et al. The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations. Am J Hum Genet 2004; 74: 532–544. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  31. de Filippo C, Barbieri C, Whitten M et al. Y-chromosomal variation in sub-Saharan Africa: Insights into the history of Niger-Congo groups. Mol Biol Evol 2011; 28: 1255–1269. | Article | PubMed | ISI |
  32. Berniell-Lee G, Calafell F, Bosch E et al. Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages. Mol Biol Evol 2009; 26: 1581–1589. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  33. Alves I, Coelho M, Gignoux C, Damasceno A, Prista A, Rocha J: Genetic homogeneity across Bantu-speaking groups from Mozambique and Angola challenges early split scenarios between East and West Bantu populations. Hum Biol 2011; 83: 13–38. | Article | PubMed |
  34. Montano V, Ferri G, Marcari V et al. The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western Africa. Mol Ecol 2011; 20: 2693–2708. | Article | PubMed |
  35. Veeramah KR, Connell BA, Ansari Pour N et al. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria. BMC Evol Biol 2010; 10: 92. | Article | PubMed |
  36. Thomas MG, Parfitt T, Weiss DA et al. Y chromosomes traveling south: the cohen modal haplotype and the origins of the Lemba – the ‘Black Jews of Southern Africa’. Am J Hum Genet 2000; 66: 674–686. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  37. Ye S, Dhillon S, Ke X, Collins AR, Day IN: An efficient procedure for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nucleic Acids Res 2001; 29: E88. | Article | PubMed | CAS |
  38. Thomas MG, Bradman N, Flinn HM: High throughput analysis of 10 microsatellite and 11 diallelic polymorphisms on the human Y-chromosome. Hum Genet 1999; 105: 577–581. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  39. Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF: New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree. Genome Res 2008; 18: 830–838. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  40. Kayser M, Caglia A, Corach D et al. Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. Int J Legal Med 1997; 110: 125–129. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  41. Nei M: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.
  42. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S: Arlequin (version 3.0): an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinform Online 2005; 1: 47–50. | PubMed | CAS |
  43. Behar DM, Thomas MG, Skorecki K et al. Multiple origins of Ashkenazi Levites:Y chromosome evidence for both Near Eastern and European ancestries. Am J Hum Genet 2003; 73: 768–779. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  44. Thomas MG, Skorecki K, Ben Ami H, Parfitt T, Bradman N, Goldstein DB: Origins of old testament priests. Nature 1998; 394: 138–140. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |
  45. Gusmao L, Sanchez-Diz P, Calafell F et al. Mutation rates at Y chromosome specific microsatellites. Hum Mutat 2005; 26: 520–528. | Article | PubMed | CAS |
  46. Weale ME, Shah T, Jones AL et al. Rare deep-rooting Y chromosome lineages in humans: lessons for phylogeography. Genetics 2003; 165: 229–234. | PubMed | CAS |
  47. Trombetta B, Cruciani F, Sellitto D, Scozzari R: A new topology of the human Y chromosome haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2) revealed through the use of newly characterized binary polymorphisms. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e16073. | Article | PubMed |
  48. Edmonds CA, Lillie AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL: Mutations arising in the wave front of an expanding population. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 975–979. | Article | PubMed | CAS |
  49. Klopfstein S, Currat M, Excoffier L: The fate of mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion. Mol Biol Evol 2006; 23: 482–490. | Article | PubMed | ISI | CAS |

Top

Acknowledgements

We thank all DNA donors and those assisting in sample collection and Professor Mark Thomas and Dr Krishna Veeramah for their support with typing and helpful comments and suggestions on the manuscript. NAP was supported by NERC-Case PhD studentship.

Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on European Journal of Human Genetics website

From webpage:  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v21/n4/full/ejhg2012176a.html

This sounds like a truth that they chose to forget

One Day The Plagues Of Egypt Will Help In The Deliverance Of Israel

ten plagues of egypt list

Isaiah 11:11 – 12

And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.And He will lift up a standard for the nations And assemble the banished ones of Israel, And will gather the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.

trans atlantic slave trade destinations

The Holy Spirit took me into thought about this, When God gathers his people Israel back from the four corners of the earth,  Israel will leave their enemies lands with great substance, just like they did in Egypt. Don’t Worry Israel those unpaid slave reparations is coming.

Just like before. But worse

Exodus 3:22

But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.


sarai and pharaoh

Genesis 15:13

And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.

darkness plague

Pharaoh was so happy to get rid of them. because God tore him up with those plagues for holding on to his people whom he commanded pharaoh to let go of Israel were in captivity 430 years in Egypt, Not the 400 God told Abraham. After they came out of captivity of Egypt Deuteronomy 28 told the curses that would come upon the children of Israel in disobedience. More captivity, but this time the 400 years that God warned Abraham about, not the 430 years in Egypt.

judahs trip to america

Isaiah 11:13- 16

The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them.And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dryshod And there shall be an highway for the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria; like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.

1a revelation st John

A similar thing is going to happen. The nations are going to know that it is God who is ripping them apart because he is going to make war for his people, whom the nations were in agreement in scattering. But this time it will be far worse.

The whole book of Revelation is God’s revenge on the nations for what they did to his people just like he did to old pharaoh but it will be far worse, God’s promise to his people during this time is that Jacob shall be saved out of it. Which means Jacob shall be saved out of tribulation.

Jesus and the seven churches

Jeremiah 30:7

Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob’s trouble; but he shall be saved out of it.

Jeremiah 30:10

Therefore fear thou not, O my servant Jacob, saith the LORD; neither be dismayed, O Israel: for, lo, I will save thee from afar, and thy seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall return, and shall be in rest, and be quiet, and none shall make him afraid.

Isaiah 14:3

And it shall come to pass in the day that the LORD shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve,

wilderness

Revelation 12:14 – 17

And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood. And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth. And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.

philadelphia the church that does it

Revelation 3:7 – 10

And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth; I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name.Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.

nicee picture
1 Thessalonians 4:16 – 18

For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.Therefore comfort one another with these words.

man praying fervently

Luke 21:36

Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.

tribulationnn

but the offending nations will go through this time of plagues, as spoken of in the Book of Revelation.

Isaiah 10:20

And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; but shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.

ancient rome Jesus painting

Redemption is coming, are you ready Israel ? If not get ready, keep those commandments, statues and laws of the Most High.

hear o yisrael our yah is one

(Video added) My Understanding Of Joel 3 The Real Hebrews Are Not In Israel

jericho

Daniel 9:7 

O Lord, righteousness belongeth unto thee, but unto us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries whither thou hast driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee.

Dna stuff

(This is my understanding of this whole thing from the evidence gathered please check out everything for yourself. and I John 4: 1 everything I do not want to lead anyone astray. I do not claim to know everything,  so please don’t misunderstand this post. This is from my studies.)

I seen an article where it said that the people of Palestine have more Hebrew blood than the Ashkenazi Jewish people.

But there is a reason for that.  There are three players here according to the bible. 1. The Gentiles 2. Jacob and  3. Edom.

The bible says that he will bring the enemies of Israel against them as swift as the eagle flieth. This happened during the dispersal of Israel in 70AD. see for yourself, those who were responsible for this dispersal are the Gentiles who inhabit Israel now. see the scripture for yourself

Deuteronomy 28:49

The LORD shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand;

Luke 21:20 – 21

And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh.Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto.

(end of verse)

desert countries africa

(70 Ad invasion these mountains were the Atlas Mountains look below)

Luke 21:24

And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

Notice it says ALL nations not just one place of the world and one nation.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_Mountains

Another place where bible scholars claim Israel fled is Mount Pella but considering the lies to cover up things i do not know how much of this I believe, It does not make sense for Israel to flee north  because that is where their enemy was attacking them from. who in their right mind would run toward the attacking enemy ?  Edom was attacking them too ! here is the mountain range below. with a map of it.

map of israel and surrounding countries

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Lebanon

I believe they fled toward Egypt toward the atlas mountains. The Romans had no jurisdiction in the northern part of Africa it was considered safe at the time.

slave trade

Deuteronomy 28:48

Therefore shalt thou serve thine enemies which the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things: and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee.

source national archives slave ship

We are living in the times of the Gentiles also known as the Grace age. The true Hebrews were put into slavery the warning was given to Moses after the children of Israel came from the 430 captivity in Egypt God told them that if they disobey his commandments he will let them go into bondage again but this time with ships. Without a redeemer or a savior.

Deuteronomy 28:68

And the LORD shall bring thee into Egypt again with ships, by the way whereof I spake unto thee, Thou shalt see it no more again: and there ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bondmen and bondwomen, and no man shall buy you.

We all know about the Arab and the transatlantic slave trade we have spoken about this many times on this blog. Jesus told them to flee into the mountains when this takes place. They did in 70 AD the mountains of Africa.   Now how would the Palestinians have the blood of the Hebrews ?  According to the bible Edom  (Esau) which is Jacobs brother lays his hands on the substance of Jacob after Jacob is carried away captive with the gentiles.

Obadiah
King James 2000

Judgment Upon Edom

1The vision of Obadiah. Thus says the Lord GOD concerning Edom; We have heard a message from the LORD, and an ambassador is sent among the nations, Arise you, and let us rise up against her in battle.

2Behold, I have made you small among the nations: you are greatly despised.

3The pride of your heart has deceived you, you that dwell in the clefts of the rock, whose habitation is high; that says in his heart, Who shall bring me down to the ground?

4Though you exalt yourself as the eagle, and though you set your nest among the stars, from there will I bring you down, says the LORD.

5If thieves came to you, if robbers by night, (how are you cut off!) would they not have stolen till they had enough? if the grape gatherers came to you, would they not leave some grapes?

6How are the things of Esau searched out! how are his treasures sought out!

7All the men in your confederacy have forced you even to the border: the men that were at peace with you have deceived you, and prevailed against you; they that eat your bread have laid a trap under you: there is no understanding of it.

8Shall I not in that day, says the LORD, even destroy the wise men out of Edom, and understanding out of the mountains of Esau?

9And your mighty men, O Teman, shall be dismayed, to the end that every one of the mountains of Esau may be cut off by slaughter.

10For your violence against your brother Jacob shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever.

11In the day that you stood on the other side, in the day that the strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusalem, even you were as one of them.

12But you should not have looked down on the day of your brother in the day that he became a stranger; neither should you have rejoiced over the children of Judah in the day of their destruction; neither should you have spoken proudly in the day of distress.

13You should not have entered into the gate of my people in the day of their calamity; yea, you should not have looked down on their affliction in the day of their calamity, nor have laid hands on their substance in the day of their calamity;

14Neither should you have stood at the crossroads, to cut off those of his that did escape; neither should you have delivered up those of his that did remain in the day of distress.

15For the day of the LORD is near upon all the nations: as you have done, it shall be done unto you: your reward shall return upon your own head.

16For as you have drunk upon my holy mountain, so shall all the nations drink continually, yea, they shall drink, and they shall swallow down, and they shall be as though they had never been.

Israel Shall Be Delivered

17But upon mount Zion shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; and the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions.

18And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau for stubble, and they shall kindle them, and devour them; and there shall not be any remaining of the house of Esau; for the LORD has spoken it.

19And they of the south shall possess the mountains of Esau; and they of the lowlands the Philistines: and they shall possess the fields of Ephraim, and the fields of Samaria: and Benjamin shall possess Gilead.

20And the captives of this host of the children of Israel shall possess the land of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captives of Jerusalem, who are in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south.

21And saviors shall come up on mount Zion to judge the mountains of Esau; and the kingdom shall be the LORD’S.

(end of scripture)

To my understanding the Palestinians are blood descent of the Saudi Arabians and the Egyptians. Edom was known to be in Saudi Arabia Dedan was apart of Edom to my biblical understanding. That is why the Palestinians were there when the Ashkenazi Jewish people came in 1948. Since then their blood has mixed.

Jews, Palestinians have close genetic ties, say researchers

Leaving the fact that when Jesus comes Edom will be in Israel.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinians

http://www.wnd.com/2012/09/hamas-palestinians-actually-are-egyptians-saudis/

Ezekiel 25:13

Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; I will also stretch out mine hand upon Edom, and will cut off man and beast from it; and I will make it desolate from Teman; and they of Dedan shall fall by the sword.

http://nabataea.net/saudi.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dedan

Ashkenazi means German. and Ashkenazi is a descendant of Gomer according to the bible. Gomer is a relative of Japheth according to Genesis 10: 1-5  this tells that Ashkenazi is Gentile. According to Joel 3 Israel is not dwelling in Israel when the Messiah returns he has to gather his dispersed who were sold into slavery to the four corners of the earth. They had sold a boy for a harlot and a girl for wine so that they could drink.

Joel
Chapter 3

1 For, behold, in those days, and in that time, when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem,

2 I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there for my people and for my heritage Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted my land.

3 And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.

4 Yea, and what have ye to do with me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the coasts of Palestine? will ye render me a recompence? and if ye recompense me, swiftly and speedily will I return your recompence upon your own head;

5 Because ye have taken my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things:

6 The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.

7 Behold, I will raise them out of the place whither ye have sold them, and will return your recompence upon your own head:

8 And I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the children of Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to a people far off: for the LORD hath spoken it.

9 Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up:

10 Beat your plowshares into swords, and your pruninghooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.

11 Assemble yourselves, and come, all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about: thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O LORD.

12 Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.

13 Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness is great.

14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.

15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.

16 The LORD also shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but the LORD will be the hope of his people, and the strength of the children of Israel.

17 So shall ye know that I am the LORD your God dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more.

18 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth of the house of the LORD, and shall water the valley of Shittim.

19 Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the violence against the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land.

20 But Judah shall dwell for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation.

21 For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed: for the LORD dwelleth in Zion.

(End of Scripture)

africans selling slaves to grecians

  One thing I can say everybody was united and in agreement with the slave trade even till this very day no reparations for it.

Psalm 83:3 -10

They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones.They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee:The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes;Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre;Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen the children of Lot. Selah.Do unto them as unto the Midianites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kison:Which perished at Endor: they became as dung for the earth.


(end of scripture)

slavery bible prophecy

I hope this answers many questions you might be having. It is a fact those who had ancestors who were slaves in the Arab and transatlantic are the true ancient Hebrews of Israel.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan

for further confirmation of these facts check out these history books.

The most important thing is following Christ so that you can be ready when he comes

Jesus on thronea a aaprayer

The Reason I Hate Lies

the truth about lies

The scripture above says it all. Lies have destroyed families and people’s lives even little lies can be dangerous to anyone, this is why I promote the truth so much. The truth is of God, and the foundation is solid. Any foundation based upon lies, is not a solid foundation.

cornerstone of the buiding

The foundation with anything that we have should be Christ, as a foundation. He is the cornerstone that the builders rejected, but yet the truth of this fact is that the cornerstone holds up the whole building. That cornerstone is needed for that building to stand. Christ is truth.

1 a achrist the cornerstone

Lie’s destroy because the foundation is imaginary, an imaginary foundation brings ruin to any life or any group of people. Lie’s damage, kill, and destroy it’s victims and those who promote them.

Imagine the life that you have now, you have people in your life that you trust it could be a brother, sister, husband, wife, Mother or father, but in the midst of that trust of that person. You find out what you believed all the time about them having your back is one big lie, and furthermore they are not even who they said they are to you.

people dont realize

Everything you believed in and the things you were taught turns out to be one big fat Lie, a brainwashed fable.  You could have been taught 2+2 = 5 but you find out it equals four.

false witness

That big fat lie tears apart the foundation that you had built what you believed on because you thought it was the truth.  Most people under these circumstances would lose their minds, without the truth of Christ in their lives and I am sure most people have because their whole lives was one big fabricated lie.

truth forever lies a moment

Many people have been torn apart because of realizing that they were betrayed by the very folks who they believed told them the truth. These things damage without Christ many turn into wanderers and many have fallen away from their faith in God all together because of these things that someone had done to them. God reject lies in all of it’s forms, Fabrication of things is not faith.

faith in christ Jesus children of God

There is a big difference between speaking things into existence, with faith. and outright lies.   Lies never existed and never will exist because the foundation is not based upon truth.

Yet faith is based upon truth the bible tells us we can call those things that be not as though they were, through the truth of God’s word not lies. Lies destroy and kill.

they take the bait

Satan is the father of lies he is a destroyer. There is no substance with him and his kingdom is based upon quick fixes and short term pleasure and illusions.The things he uses are stolen, things that are not his, he cannot create. He lures people with things stolen, that God created, because the earth is the Most High’s and the fullness thereof.

Jesus is the way the truth

Yet Christ came to give life, He is The Father of Truth.  His Kingdom is eternal and everlasting and has no end. The truth nourishes and give life. That is why there is a difference. Lies are based upon hurting others. The truth is based upon helping others.

the truth will

We must all make a conscious decision to abide in the truth and not lies. To abide in lies we self destruct. To abide in truth leads to eternity.

lies destroy

Idolatry is apart of lies, it is a worship of false objects calling them the real thing . It is the worship of things made with hands of wood and stone. God tells everyone to have no God’s before him yet people are stuck in their materialistic world. Materialism is nothing more than glorified idolatry.

idolatry and materialism

Every thing that a person trust more than the Most High is idolatry. The early church did not worship objects and call them God, the pagans did, and the Babylonians did.

bondage of debt

Every day that goes by that this world stands is God’s extended grace and he is giving all a chance to repent. He is calling all of you to come out of mystery Babylon. Idolatry is the main cause of debt, bondage and Idolatry is also a lie.

credit trap

James 5:1 – 3

Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you.Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are motheaten.Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days.

define neccesity

Having things gives no one peace, all of these things rust and dust take away, All the riches that men trust are illusions, they gather things so that another will enjoy it. These lies pass away like a distant memory. God has already judged lies time is catching up with itself right into eternity and judgment comes.

reality unreality

These TV shows and these movies that everyone are so fond of I hate to say it but it is apart of the deception that satan deceives the world with, as well the as made up things from people’s evil imaginations are all lies too.

When people believe these things they have a heightened sense of reality. leading them in the way of the supernatural lies of the evil one Your computers monitors are guilty of this same sin.

This will lead to the cashless, biometric computer chip society that God does not approve of. The whole world lies in the deception of the evil one this is why the Messiah must come.

(UPDATE DOUBLED) Bible Scholars and Rabbi’s Tells How Israel Ended Up In Africa Before The Slave Trade

( Story told with English translator)

(sorry about the audio cut in the last part)

Recommended books to read:

A variety of  Rabbi’s talking about this subject below

Rabbi Harry Rozenberg

Rabbi Ralph Messer

Rabbi Simon Altaf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan

More and more evidence is coming forth, I believe it is for a reason, we are in the last days.

EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT BLACKS ARE AFRO ASIATIC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan

Af·ro-A·si·at·ic

(ăf′rō-ā′zhē-ăt′ĭk, -shē-, -zē-)berber lady

 

(A Berber Lady)

n.

A large family of languages spoken in northern Africa and southwest Asia, comprising the Semitic, Chadic, Cushitic, Berber, Omotic, and ancient Egyptian languages; formerly known as Hamito-Semitic.
 Interesting coverup

Semitic

(sɪˈmɪtɪk) or less commonly Shemitic

n

1. (Languages) a branch or subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages that includes Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and such ancient languages as Akkadian and Phoenician

adj

2. (Languages) denoting, relating to, or belonging to this group of languages
3. (Peoples) denoting, belonging to, or characteristic of any of the peoples speaking a Semitic language, esp the Jews or the Arabs

Etymology (excerpt from wikipedia)

The Afroasiatic language family was originally referred to as “HamitoSemitic“, a term introduced in the 1860s by the German scholar Karl Richard Lepsius.[10] The name was later popularized by Friedrich Müller in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft (Vienna 1876-88).[11][12]

The term “Afroasiatic” (often now spelled as “Afro-Asiatic”) was later coined by Maurice Delafosse (1914). However, it did not come into general use until Joseph Greenberg (1950) formally proposed its adoption. In doing so, Greenberg sought to emphasize the fact that Afroasiatic was represented transcontinentally, in both Africa and Asia.[12]

Individual scholars have also called the family “Erythraean” (Tucker 1966) and “Lisramic” (Hodge 1972). In lieu of “Hamito-Semitic”, the Russian linguist Igor Diakonoff later suggested the term “Afrasian”, meaning “half African, half Asiatic”, in reference to the geographic distribution of the family’s constituent languages.[10]

The term “Hamito-Semitic” remains in use in the academic traditions of some European countries.

In addition to languages spoken today, Afroasiatic includes several important ancient languages, such as Ancient Egyptian, Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew, and Old Aramaic.

1955-1960

1955-60; Afro- + Asiatic

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
Cite This Source
British Dictionary definitions for Afroasiatic

Afro-Asiatic

noun

1.

Also called Semito-Hamitic. a family of languages of SW Asia and N Africa, consisting of the Semitic, ancient Egyptian, Berber, Cushitic, and Chadic subfamilies

adjective

2.

denoting, belonging to, or relating to this family of languages

The word “Semitic” is derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in Genesis 5:32, Genesis 6:10, Genesis 10:21, or more precisely from the Greek derivative of that name, namely Σημ (Sēm); the noun form referring to a person is Semite.

The concept of “Semitic” peoples is derived from biblical accounts of the origins of the cultures known to the ancient Hebrews. In an effort to categorize the peoples known to them, those closest to them in culture and language were generally deemed to be descended from their supposed forefather Shem. (excerpt from wikipedia)

http://www.beforebc.de/400_neareast/02-16-500-SM.akk-57-050-08.html

semitic figure from egypt

(Ancient Semitic Hebrew figurine from Egypt)

Some people might get mad at me for saying this but I must tell you the truth so no offense and brace yourself if you are one of those people, who get mad at the truth, but Europe was never known as semitic.

I do not understand why some religious people who claim to love God are supporting this lie. All have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God it is understandable but why continue to support a lie, God will not honor it.

Genesis 10:2 – 5

The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras
And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

damaged statue of joseph jacobs son

(This is the damaged statue of Joseph in Egypt son of Jacob of the Torah (Holy Bible)

The interesting thing about research is that you find a lot of lies, most of the time when people tell one lie they have to keep covering up their lies with even more lies, so that no one will discover the truth.  It becomes layers of lies passed down to people from generation to generation.

sifting through the devils lies

The lies become so bad that folks start getting mad and throw a temper tantrum if you start to expose their lies, with some truth. This is how the enemy of our souls work in the children of disobedience.

1 a man putting head in sand

We must all be careful and check out everything that we are told because a lot of it have only a fraction of the truth in it . No lie will stand before Jesus (Yahushua) at his coming he will rule with a rod of iron. I do not doubt many will melt in his presence. Folks better stop lying.

south african woman

( This lady look like an Asian person she is actually a Khoisan South African)

It is not about skin tone it is about lies being told that need to be exposed. It is better to know the truth now then to have Jesus tell the truth when he does it will be too late, people will be then judged for embracing lies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afro-Asian_%28African_Asian%29

Blessings

God looks At The Heart And Motives

evil heart

When we all stand before the judgment seat of Christ, God will not judge you based upon how much praise you receive from Men or women, he will judge you based upon, the motive you had for doing what you are doing. God judges the heart.

judgment seat of christ and crowns

1 Corinthians 3:11 – 15

For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;Every man’s work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is.If any man’s work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

do not forbid the little children to come unto

We can build ourselves up on works all we want but if our motives are to tear someone else down in the process in order to get ahead, or if we have a competitive spirit that stirs up strive and division.

avoid those who cause divisions

We are not doing the work of God.  God wants us all to worship him in spirit and in truth, to love our neighbor as we love ourselves.

every word of God is truth

Most of all, we should abide in all truth. Works are very important but they will not save you. We must follow the commandments, statues, and laws of God. Jesus (Yahushua) is the Word Of God, who was made flesh who dwelt among us. He is the bible, The torah in the flesh.

brown family bible

John 1:14 King James Version (KJV)

14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

ten commandments

If Jesus (Yahushua) is the Word, following his commandments and laws are not contradiction, to grace and faith in him, because we are following him when we do so. Jesus (Yahushua is the door to salvation)  without him there is no redemption.

We must accept him as the way, the door to redemption. His blood is the detergent that washes away all of our sins.

pride goes before a fall

  Therefore we must not be uplifted in pride, our righteousness is through him. I sure make lot of mistakes at times but I am strengthened In Christ. That is why the devil tries to work so hard to tear us who belong to Christ away from him. This is why he will use condemnation against us. We must be careful of this lying tactic this is what Jesus says about this matter.

John 10:27 – 30

My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father’s hand.I and my Father are one.

thief comes to destroy

With the savior making such a statement that says it all, and all the things that is done to contradict this truth is from the pit of hell.

 

Ephesians 2:8 – 9

For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:
Not of works, lest any man should boast.

hear o yisrael our yah is one

The Bottom Line Of The Research Of The Identity Of Black Americans AKA African Americans

bottom line pic

Truth for some is a welcoming experience but for some it is bitter and not appealing that is why truth is denied so much by the public. People do not really want to know the truth when it is laid out to them so they follow the crowd in a drunken stupor.

This posting is for those who love the truth and want to know it . As for the others I won’t interupt your sleep. Satan comes to steal, kill, and to destroy but through Christ because of the truth, we can have life and have it more abundantly enjoying the truth.

https://prophecynewsandviews.wordpress.com/found-biblical-heritage-of-black-americans/

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Jesus/Jesus.htm

Ezekiel 37:1-14King James Version (KJV)

37 The hand of the Lord was upon me, and carried me out in the spirit of the Lord, and set me down in the midst of the valley which was full of bones,

And caused me to pass by them round about: and, behold, there were very many in the open valley; and, lo, they were very dry.

And he said unto me, Son of man, can these bones live? And I answered, O Lord God, thou knowest.

Again he said unto me, Prophesy upon these bones, and say unto them, O ye dry bones, hear the word of the Lord.

Thus saith the Lord God unto these bones; Behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live:

And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the Lord.

So I prophesied as I was commanded: and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a shaking, and the bones came together, bone to his bone.

And when I beheld, lo, the sinews and the flesh came up upon them, and the skin covered them above: but there was no breath in them.

Then said he unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord God; Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.

10 So I prophesied as he commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great army.

11 Then he said unto me, Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel: behold, they say, Our bones are dried, and our hope is lost: we are cut off for our parts.

12 Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel.

13 And ye shall know that I am the Lord, when I have opened your graves, O my people, and brought you up out of your graves,

14 And shall put my spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you in your own land: then shall ye know that I the Lord have spoken it, and performed it, saith the Lord.

If you had ancestors who were carried away by the Arab and the transatlantic slave trade this is for you.  God wants you to live and not suffer from a spiritual death. Like Some are when finding out these facts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan

Shrug it off like it is nothing but it is something God is waking up the valley of dry bones and he is telling you to live he told Ezekiel to prophesy to the valley of dry bones so that they will live. And The Most High is calling out to you to live. 

you cannot serve two masters

Break away from your pagan traditions called holidays made up by the world and embrace biblical holidays we have a rich heritage .  Many are in denial and say they are gentiles or hamites, and are celebrating the feast days of the Gentiles, and worshipping false gods.

God is against Baal worship. Many are worshipping Baal by their celebration of Christmas.

black folks celebrating christmas

This day has nothing to do with the Messiah of Israel . It is Nimrods birthday of ancient Babylon.

Nimrod hated God and wanted to build a tower to heaven to fight God. This was known as the tower of Babel. Babel means confusion. In the book of Revelation God tells his people to come out of her and be not a partaker of her sins.

come out of babylon don't share her sins

Jesus came for the lost sheep of Israel and he is telling you to turn away from these pagan things so that you can live. Many did not know the true heritage of black americans.

i am afraid for you

I am glad that we were able to bring these things to your attention. But now action need to be taken. We all must accept the free gift of eternal life given by the true Messiah of Israel Yahushua aka Jesus.

He is the only door into heaven this is important for your salvation . But we must also pick back up the customs of our fore fathers and let go of these worldly pagan feast days and switch them to the biblical feast days of God .

Jesus and the seven churches

This is the only way to the redemption of the people of God.

The Justice Of This World Will Be Judged

trading for brandy

It amazes me how the logic of  those who like to point out the fact of how much debt true Israel can obtain and the racist people love to point it out.

soar like an eagle

Although we can definitely acknowledge that it is apart of the Deuteronomy 28 curses, of our ancestors.  It goes with the injustices that are being practiced to this very day against true Israel.

Many are indebted and are being oppressed by the enemy because of these debts. The system is fixed so that those who have tried will not get ahead it is a game for these people.  Yet there is no payment for the free slave labor  of our ancestors we are told to forget about it.

Yet many others are getting reparations for lesser offenses this is the reason that Jesus will Judge all who are oppressing others and all who have a hand in these so called debts that Israel owe.

the deceiving dragon

Their debt is bigger, and Jesus will come and get payment . People pay debts who have the money to pay them I am quite sure, but the weapon that is used against true Israel is need and want of things and lack, of opportunity to work to obtain those things when they go after them.

This is a game and a trap of oppression, and condemnation that the seed of Satan is trying to use against Israel and others.It is also a trap for people to embrace the Mark of The Beast no more than designed deception to control and play God over others. Israel pay every debt you owe as best as you can but remember; they will pay for more so let them go ahead and oppress, what comes around goes around, God is not mocked. Jesus is about to bring swift judgment.

every body was doing it wont hold water on judgment day

Joel 3

1 For, behold, in those days, and in that time, when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem,

2 I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there for my people and for my heritage Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted my land.

3 And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.

gavel

4 Yea, and what have ye to do with me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the coasts of Palestine? will ye render me a recompence? and if ye recompense me, swiftly and speedily will I return your recompence upon your own head;

5 Because ye have taken my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things:

6 The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border.

7 Behold, I will raise them out of the place whither ye have sold them, and will return your recompence upon your own head:

8 And I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the children of Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to a people far off: for the LORD hath spoken it.

9 Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war, wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up:

10 Beat your plowshares into swords, and your pruninghooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.

11 Assemble yourselves, and come, all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about: thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, O LORD.

12 Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.

13 Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness is great.

14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.

15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.

lion of judah roar

16 The LORD also shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but the LORD will be the hope of his people, and the strength of the children of Israel.

17 So shall ye know that I am the LORD your God dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more.

18 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth of the house of the LORD, and shall water the valley of Shittim.

19 Egypt shall be a desolation, and Edom shall be a desolate wilderness, for the violence against the children of Judah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land.

obadiah

20 But Judah shall dwell for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation.

21 For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed: for the LORD dwelleth in Zion.

The belief system of the world to oppress others is judged by God Almighty, soon there will be no oppressor. God is coming for you Satan and your ungodly seed.

lion attacks snake

(UPDATED) A Better Country Of Promise

in my fathers house are many mansions

(This blog post is dedicated to my Grandmother Rebecca who made the journey on 12-02-15 to the Country of Promise)

Hebrews 11:15 -16

And truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned.But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.

choose this day

In serving The Most High God through Jesus (Yahushua), We must all continue to serve him. Not for what we can obtain from him. We should serve him because we desire to and because we love him.

red bible

He made a promise to us as we go through this life with many trials, temptations, and test we must know, that in the end of it all, we will be rewarded for the love that we show and the efforts we made to reach out to others with his good news (The gospel).

go spread the good news

We must continue in love and tell everyone no matter who they are that Jesus loves them and he is coming soon . We must continue in him to be a light in a dark world and through this life at all times look forward to a better country.

heaven painting

“My grandmother always said never get comfortable in this world, We are only passing through here this world is not our home.”

better place

She told the truth, She hoped for a better country and on the 2nd of this month, just two days ago, She went to that better country that she had always talked about, with a smile on her face,  I was told by my mother. She streaked through the sky on that chariot to heaven. I praise God for her testimony in my life because she is the one who introduced me to the Word of God by giving me my first bible. I thank God for such a wonderful grandmother.

shooting star

I seen her go through trials and tests and her life was a testimony. She fought the devil and won, As many saints are doing from day to day passing from this world to the next. I do not doubt that she gained the victor’s crown. I am thankful to Jesus for the time that I had with her but he had a better use for her in heaven.

crown of crowns

One thing she stressed to everyone she met is to give their heart to God. And to Look forward to that better land. Where evil, strife, and fear are not allowed.

Most of all We should look forward to seeing our creator face to face, and being under his love and his wings of protection. Soon evil will be eradicated, not with false peace but an everlasting peace, God promise a body of perfection a heavenly tent for those who love him.

It was my grandmother who put me on the journey of finding out who I was she mentioned where we came from and who we really were as a people before the slave trade.

https://thefigtreeahebrewyisraelitetorahstudygroup.wordpress.com/found-biblical-heritage-of-black-americans/

This is her great testimony in heaven that I know she will be rewarded for. I have learned and found out so much. About the biblical heritage of black Americans. And just by that I found out so much to share with you.

from babylon to timbuktu

 

Just by my grandmother telling me to search it out. I will miss her but I know the world she is living in now is better than this one.

 

  The people in heaven are more worried about us getting there than, we should be worried about them . They made it, To a better country and my grandmother made it to that promised country of God .

1 a aaamennn

Soon all of us who believed on Christ will be carried to that country of promise.

thy kingdom come

1 Thessalonians 4:15 -18

For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.Wherefore comfort one another with these words.

a a aaprayer