Evidence Biblical Heritage of Black Americans

Found Biblical heritage of Black Americans Historical Evidence They Are And Were Hebrews

WIKEPEDIA BIBLICAL HERITAGE OF BLACK AMERICANS MUST SEE (Updated more information)

SLAVE TRADE

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The Word of God and Neither does the Spirit of Truth lie, I knew he revealed the truth to me, below is a Wikepedia confirmation blacks are in fact Hebrews decendants of Shem and Father Abraham . My question is did the church know this ? I can see already that this is a very unpopular subject but If the truth is not uncovered with us, God will uncover the truth and many are not going to like it. This is sure not about pride or arrogance since the slave trade is a dark part of history that many should be ashamed of, nor is it about racial superiority. These are facts. I thought this was a good post to put up since blacks do not know their heritage in this country when other nationalities do. We all learn something new each day so I am happy that we have the opportunity to share it enjoy.

ha something they tried to hide heboosfrom babylon to timbuktu documentation

from link : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-Sudan.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouidah

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Whydah

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savi

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Haffon

http://www.hebrewigbo.com/historical.html

http://timbooktu.com/horton/misrep.htm

DNA PROOF

Black Americans blood type haplogroup E1B1A and women’s L haplogroup does not originate in Africa it originates in the Near east or middle east according to the studies below: I AM AMAZED AT THE BIGOTRY AND RACISM INJECTED IN THE ARTILE BELOW IN AN ATTEMPT TO CONFUSE THE READER OF THE E1B1A HAPLOGROUP THAT EVERYONE KNOWS IS IN THE AFRICAN SAHARA REGION AND CONNECTED WITH THE TRANSATLANTIC AND ARAB SLAVE TRADES LOOK AT THE ATTEMPT TO CHANGE THE HAPLOGROUP FOR YOURSELF . PEOPLE DO NOT WANT YOU OR I TO KNOW THE TRUTH AND GO THROUGH GREAT LENGTHS TO HIDE IT BECAUSE THEY LOVE SATANIC LIES E1B1B OR EVEN E1B1A ORIGINATES IN AFRICA NOT EUROPE SO THIS ARTICLE BELOW EXPOSES SOME MADE UP LIES AND HATE TOWARDS THOSE WITH BROWN AND BLACK SKIN

https://sites.google.com/site/haplogroupe1a1/

WHAT AMAZES ME ABOUT THE ABOVE ARTICLE ON GOOGLE IS THEY CHANGED THE E1B1A HAPLOGROUP WHICH EVERYONE KNOWS IS THE SO CALLED AFRICAN AMERICAN THE PERSON EVEN INTERJECTED THAT EUROPEANS CAME FROM THE SAHARA DESERT AND EVERYONE KNOWS THE PEOPLE OF THE SLAVE TRADE THE TRANSATLANTIC WAS PICKED UP FROM THAT REGION.  HE EVEN TOOK DOWN WHERE ANYONE CAN COMMENT .   I SMELL COVER UP AND LIES

Hidden in plain sight, blacks were often called Afro American , in other countries Afro is always put on the front of the country a black person belongs to.

Definition of Hebrew

(ˈhiːbruː)
n

1. (Languages) the ancient language of the Hebrews, revived as the official language of Israel. It belongs to the Canaanitic branch of the Semitic subfamily of the Afro-Asiaticfamily of languages

2. (Historical Terms) a member of an ancient Semitic people claiming descent from Abraham; an Israelite

what is Afro – Asiatic ?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afroasiatic_languages
Known fact : the Suez Canal is man made it separates the land of Israel from Africa it was actually one whole continent before the man made continent . Moses and the children of Israel and even Joseph and his brothers, and Mary and Joseph with Jesus walked to Egypt before the land was parted. There was no such thing as the middle east or near east before this man made division

SUEZ CANAL SCAM
Picture evidence below to these historical found facts

hebrew making mud bricks

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Jesus/Jesus.htm

http://amandatrayce.hubpages.com/hub/Erroneous-Cartography-The-True-Size-of-Africa-Misleading-Mercator-Map

Israeli man confesses ?

We do not condone any religion that denies Jesus Yahushua Yeshua as the Messiah I want to make that clear we do not condone racism in any shape or fashion or form it is not of God that is why all these things happened. We do not agree that Jesus is a Mere Prophet. he was born of a virgin conceived by the Holy Spirit who is God. here is another startling video of another Israeli acknowledging this hidden fact. Please use caution with any group that denies Jesus as God who come in the flesh. Many have profaned his Holy name among the nations and this is sin Ezekiel 39:7. We are not !!

Could this be Historical confirmation of what Israeli man says? ? ?

Click to access gbe.evs119.full.pdf

Genesis 10:2 – 5

The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.
Jeremiah 16:19

O LORD, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Surely our fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things wherein there is no profit.
even more information wow!

THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE

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Jan 23 2014

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of slaves transported to the New World according to written history were NOT NATIVE AFRICANS from Central and Western and Eastern parts of the continent, in fact these people have been historically proven to be descendants of EARLY HEBREWS THAT HAD MIGRATED FROM ARABIA AND EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA into West Africa. These people were attacked and sold by NATIVE AFRICAN TRIBES and Muslims to European slave traders who then transported them to North and South and Central America.To further prove this statement I have obtained written records from Arab and Muslim writers and also medieval African maps written in the 17th century by the conquering Europeans. In the maps are shown geographical locations of Hebrew cities and Kingdoms that were later taken into Slavery.The First medieval African Map was Performed by the Sr. Danville Under the Patronage of the Duke of Orleans.” Revised and Improved by Mr. Bolton(1766)
And another medieval African Map called Negroland and the adjacent countries also UPPER GUINEA showing the principal European Settlements and Distinguishing by Eman Bowen 1747 West Africa
West_Africa_17471On the first map there is a city called Lamlam. In the 12th century Al Idrisi in his book entitled “Description of CENTRAL AFRICA,” wrote about a Hebrew colony in West Africa called Lam-Lam,. which was situated about 2 hundred miles West of Timbuktu.

“In the whole land of Lam- lam there are but two small cities, or as it were villages, and those are Malel and Dau, situated at the distance of four days’ journey from each other. Their inhabitants, as people of those parts relate, are JEWS, and most of them unbelieving and ignorant” ——–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of CENTRAL AFRICA

“When any of all the inhabitants of the kingdom of Lamlam comes to have the use of his reason, he is burnt in the face and temples ; this they do to distinguish each other. All their countries and dominions are near a certain river(Niger River), flowing into the Nile. It is not known whether there is any inhabited place to the south of the king dom of Lamlam. That kingdom joins on the west to Mec- zara, on the east to Vancara(Wanagara), on the north to Ghana, and on the south to the desert ; and its people use a different language from those of Meczara and Ghana” ———–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of CENTRAL AFRICA

Al Edrisi mentioned that Hebrews inhabited a area that stretched from an area called Mec- zara, on the east to Vancara(Wanagara), on the north to Ghana, and on the south to the desert. I have a close up look at the area that Edrisi is referring to.

Provindence of Mezcara
Lamlem
Outlined in RED Reads: According to Edrisi the land hereabouts was populated by Jews

Too the far left of the map, There existed a Hebrew Kingdom of Exiled Falafjam Jews Called SHANKALA Here was the location of SHANKALA on D’Anville Map of Africa

Kingdom of SHANKALA Falafjam Jews Exiled Danvilles Map of Africa

Outlined in RED
Shankala wandering tribes falafjam Jews Exiled

Al Edrisi also mentioned that the Hebrews that inhabited this area and the adjacent cites called Malel and Dau were being attacked by native African tribes and sent to Slave Traders and then sent to Slave Trading centers and then TRADED TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD.

“To the southward of Berissa, at the distance of ten days’ march, lies the land of Lam-lam, into which INCURSIONS are made by the inhabitants of Berissa(Mende), Salla, Takrur( Fulani) , and Ghana ; there they take numbers of captives, whom they carry away to their own countries, and dispose of to the merchants trading thither ; these afterwards sell them into all parts of the world”.———–AL Edrisi Of Andalusia,Spain Description of CENTRAL AFRICA

Another medieval African Map by Eman Bowen 1747 called Negroland shows
upper Guinea and the adjacent countries if you look close towards Guinea to the right of the Gold coast lies the Hebrew kingdom of JUDA of in French it was called Whidah.

WHIDAH

To further prove this statement I have a quote from a scholar named J. Leighton Wilson from the book called J. Leighton Wilson Western Africa its history, condition and prospects 1856

“Whether the natives of the country have the Jewish distinction between diaboloi and daimonia in Northern Guinea is not certainly known, but the inhabitants of Southern Guinea undoubtedly have.”——–J. Leighton Wilson Western Africa its history, condition and prospects 1856 p 216

“Mixed up with these pagan nations and customs there are many obvious traces of Judaism, both in Northern and Southern Guinea ; and in the latter, some undoubted traces of a corrupted form of Christianity, which have probably traveled across the continent from ancient Ethiopia, where Christianity was once firmly established.”——- J. Leighton Wilson Western Africa its history, condition and prospect p 220

Muslim writers to write about the Hebrews in Africa and the enslavement of the Hebrews in Africa

One 15th century Hebrew writer named Leo Africanus was an Andalusian Moorish diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa. In this book he wrote about a POWERFUL HEBREW KINGDOM in the 15th century. This kingdom was located to the right of the Egyptian Nile River. Here is his quote from his book:

“Howbeit they say that upon Nilus do inhabit two great
and populous nations, one of Jews towards the west, under the government of a mightie king”.—–Leo Africanus: The Description of Africa Vol 1 p 32

This Hebrew Kingdom with a mightie king to the right of the Nile river was called Kouko

Here is the Kingdom Kouko from the medieval African Map Performed by the Sr. Danville

Kouko – Powerful Rich Hebrew Kingdom

Leo Africanus As a young man accompanied his uncle on a diplomatic mission to the Maghreb, reaching as far as the city of Timbuktu (c. 1510), then part of the Songhai Empire.

In his book entitled Descrittione dell’ Africa (Description of Africa) Leo Africanus wrote about the HATRED that the Native Africans had against HEBREWS that lived in West Africa about 500 yrs ago.

This is what he wrote while on his travels into WEST AFRICA in 1526:

“In Garura there were some very rich Jews. The intervention of the preacher (Muhammid al-Maghili) of Tlemcen set up the pillage of their goods, and most of them have been killed by the population. This event took place during the same year when the Jews had been expelled from Spain and Sicily by the Catholic King(1492- 16th Century)

Leo Africanus further wrote:

“The king (Askia) is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods.”

Posted by Hays at 3:51 pm from webpage : http://truthhitman.com/?p=714
https://vimeo.com/116077927

Luke 21:24
And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

Isaiah 63 King James Version (KJV)

63 Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.

2 Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat?

3 I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment.

4 For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.

5 And I looked, and there was none to help; and I wondered that there was none to uphold: therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me.

6 And I will tread down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth.

7 I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord, and the praises of the Lord, according to all that the Lord hath bestowed on us, and the great goodness toward the house of Israel, which he hath bestowed on them according to his mercies, and according to the multitude of his lovingkindnesses.

8 For he said, Surely they are my people, children that will not lie: so he was their Saviour.

9 In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old.

10 But they rebelled, and vexed his holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them.

11 Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people, saying, Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where is he that put his holy Spirit within him?

12 That led them by the right hand of Moses with his glorious arm, dividing the water before them, to make himself an everlasting name?

13 That led them through the deep, as an horse in the wilderness, that they should not stumble?

14 As a beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest: so didst thou lead thy people, to make thyself a glorious name.

15 Look down from heaven, and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory: where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding of thy bowels and of thy mercies toward me? are they restrained?

16 Doubtless thou art our father, though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not: thou, O Lord, art our father, our redeemer; thy name is from everlasting.

17 O Lord, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear? Return for thy servants’ sake, the tribes of thine inheritance.

18 The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while: our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary.

19 We are thine: thou never barest rule over them; they were not called by thy name.

Please compare information given with Gen 10: 3, Deut 28, Joel 3, Lev 26, the whole chap of Obadiah, Rev 2:9,Rev 3:9 (This post is not to promote hate just expose truth)

Recommended must reads

into egypt again with shipsibos revelationbABYLON BOOK

The book is an eyeopener but I believe that all men and women are not justified by the works of the law. but by the faith of Jesus Christ. Galatians 2:16

Special note to the readers of this book from the producers of this book

ibos revelationthe negro question book

forensic proof

The Hebrew’s have been scattered throughout the world. The Worldly system has suppressed who the Hebrew’s are for many years. It has been a well-known fact that they were part of the Atlantic slave trade, among other persecutions that have been recorded throughout history. The interesting thing is at some point History has become His-story. People, governments, the education system have gone through great lengths to hide a lot of history. A professor out of Nigeria did an extensive research to locate some of ancient Hebrews. His book called the Ibos has created a lot of controversy, and his book has been rejected to enter into the U.S. One has to reason, why are they not allowing this information out for those that desire to learn more about the people of the scriptures? We have decided to reprint this book and share his research with those who desire to learn about what happen to part of the Hebrews in history. This is not an attack on any race at all. This is to bring some clarity on some things that have been suppressed for years, and to help Israel wake up and understand who they are. This is a must have in your library. We pray this book gives you an appreciation for what this Professor has done in hope to learn some true history. There is more to this story. We will in the future do a revised version of this book to give more history about the ancient Hebrews that has been called the 10 lost tribes, as well as the tribe of Yahudah (Judah)

Book Review the negro question book

I read this book as soon as I got it the first day the first page was really gripping, with historical evidence. This book even gives evidence that some Universities in the United States hold of this historical fact the information in this book will shock you . I highly recommend this book to everyone, just so you will know the truth.

(SPECIAL NOTE) IF YOU ARE CONSIDERING JOINING ANY OF THE HEBREW ISRAELITE GROUPS AND YOU ARE A CHRISTIAN I MUST REFER YOU TO THE BOOK OF GALATIANS IN THE HOLY BIBLE THIS INFORMATION IS GOOD TO KNOW BUT I DO NOT WANT ANY ONE DECEIVED PLEASE STAY UNDERSTAND WE ARE UNDER GRACE THROUGH FAITH IN JESUS NOT THE LAW BELIEVE THE BIBLE AND DON’T FRUSTRATE THE GRACE OF GOD.

I must warn you some of the pictures and language on these sites I am about to share are not all of our views this is for learning purposes only. So please don’t get mad at us. some pictures may be disturbing and graphic and some language may offend you. I ask you to I John 4 :1 everything these sites were put up so that you will be aware of the positive and negative views around you. I ask you to research to verify keep truth throw out lies. Most of all rely on the Word of God, and believe on it. We do believe that Jesus is God who came in the flesh and will not deny that fact, as some do . Please go to these sites with care and guidance from the Holy Spirit. Be very careful of deceptive doctrine or belief systems. If you are not spiritually mature please do not view. Beware of the leaven of the Pharisee’s, when we give this information, we are constantly changing the information and going back and looking at their different belief’s and we take down. What God leads us to take down and put up what God allows us to put up. We do not agree with any kind of occult practices what so ever and we do not care what religion it is. So view all things with the caution of I John 4:1 We are doing the best we can to provide truth on this site, I believe that is all God requires.
Historical facts by Hope and Faith Ministries
THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM – THE DISPERSAL OF HEBREW ISRAEL
a) As early as 63 BC, under Pompey’s campaign, many of the dispersed Hebrews were enslaved in Romeb) In 70 AD, began the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem at the hands of Titus, a Roman General; under the reign of Titus Vespasian, there was a four year onslaught against Hebrew Israel and many were either killed or sold into slavery

c) The last Hebrew revolt (the Bar-Kokhba rebellion) against Rome, occurred in 135 AD

d) After 135 AD, the entire Hebrew Nationhood was dispersed / scattered

e) A multitude of Hebrews fled Rome for fear of persecution, through either death or enslavement

The Great Transmigration Of Hebrew Israel

The Hebrews migrated into Arabia immediately after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Roman General Titus, in 70 AD. During this period the Hebrews referred to themselves as Yemenite Hebrews. It is said that the Yemenite Hebrews came out of the line of Solomon & Queen of Sheba and their son Menelik. Also, they are closely related to the Ethiopians of Abyssinia. The Arabs were one of the first Peoples to identify the great land mass of Cush/Africa, as ‘Bilad es Sudan’.Cyprus: Had a very large population of Hebrews, many of them were disciples of the Nazarene doctrine and some held trades as copper smiths, during the period of 135 AD.By the second century, great masses of Hebrews had migrated into Alexandria, Egypt and all across the Northern Coast of Africa, including: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Mauretania. During the 5th and 6th centuries they fled from the Byzantine (Roman) occupied countries, into the region of the Sahara Desert and the Sudan. Many of the Hebrews played a significant role in cultivating the great Sahara Desert.Across Africa and into Spain; in the middle of the 7th century the Arabs were on the move and launched an attack against Egypt and won, they continued to move across Africa and into Spain. Iberia/Spain & Portugal had been under the rule of the Moors for well over 500 years. As early as the 6th century there was a great population of Hebrews, many of them were devout men who dominated most of the learning centers (religious and secular) throughout Spain. They were once again persecuted for the practice of their faith and many were forced to convert to Islam or flee. It wasn’t until the great inquisitions of Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1496 that Hebrew Israel migrated in great numbers to the Mediterranean coasts and Northern and Western Africa. Those that did not flee were sold into slavery.Many Hebrews migrated to Asia Minor/Turkey, as a means of escaping the persecution of Spain and Portugal, during the period of 1547 AD.Finally, the vast majority of Hebrews migrated into Western Africa/Sudan, along the Western Coast of Africa and sojourned there for over fifteen hundred years (70 AD – 1619 AD). The Hebrews became a dominant factor in establishing many of the cultures throughout Western Africa, including the following countries:
•In Ghana, the Hebrews were identified as the Ashantee
•In Mali, the indigenous people were identifed as the Mandinka, however, they were not Hebrews
•In Songhay, the city of Timbuktu, which was a great center of education and commerce and many of the indigenous people were Hebrews
•Guinea, which was Known as the Gold Coast, also had a significant numbers of Hebrews

The West African Slave Trade

During middle of the 15th century, Europe had entered into the slave trade. This was the period of the decline of the great Sudanese Empires, which was brought on by the struggle with Arab invaders and tribal wars. The introduction of gun powder by the Europeans, exasperated the declension of so many of the warring factions. Now, human life and gold were traded for gun powder and arms.

Under King Charles V and the Catholic Papacy, the treasured and highly prized ‘Papal Bull Asiento’ (a license to enslave Africans) was first issued to the Portuguese.

As early as 1441, Prince Henry the Navigator had entered Africa and by 1481 Portugal had established the first European outpost (Fort Elmina), in Ghana, near the city of Benin. During this period the Portuguese coined the phrase ‘Negro’ (meaning black).

In the early 17th century (1619) the first twenty Africans arrived in Virginia, as slave laborers for the harvesting of tobacco. And the rest is history.

Jews of Bilad el-Sudan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Songhai Empire, c. 1500

Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan (אַהַל יַהוּדּ בִּלַדּ אַל סוּדָּן, Judeo-Arabic) describes West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, or Spain and Portugal. Various historical records attest to their presence at one time in the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires, then called the Bilad as-Sudan from the Arabic meaning Land of the Blacks. Jews from Spain, Portugal, and Morocco in later years also formed communities off the coast of Senegal and on the Islands of Cape Verde. These communities continued to exist for hundreds of years but have since disappeared due to changing social conditions, migration, and the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade.

Contents
•1 Early history •1.1 Trade and establishment of communities
•1.2 Islamic era

•2 Jews of the Sahara •2.1 Daggatun connection

•3 Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour and the last Timbuktu community
•4 Cape Verde
•5 Emergence of Arabic records in Timbuktu
•6 See also
•7 References
•8 Further reading •8.1 General
•8.2 Mali and Songhay
•8.3 Cape Verde and Guinea Coast

•9 External links •9.1 Timbuktu
•9.2 Northern Africa
•9.3 Cape Verde
Early history

According to most accounts, the earliest Jewish settlements in Africa were in places such as Egypt, Tunisia,and Morocco. Jews had settled along the Upper Nile at Elephantine in Egypt. These communities were augmented by subsequent arrivals of Jews after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, when 30,000 Jewish slaves were settled throughout Carthage by the Roman emperor Titus.

Africa is identified in various Jewish sources in connection with Tarshish and Ophir.[1] The Septuagint,[2] and Jerome,[3] who was taught by Jews, and very often the Aramaic Targum on the Prophets, identify the Biblical Tarshish with Carthage, which was the birthplace of a number of rabbis mentioned in the Talmud. Africa, in the broader sense, is clearly indicated where mention is made of the Ten Tribes having been driven into exile by the Assyrians and having journeyed into Africa.[4] Connected with this is the idea that the river Sambation is in Africa. The Arabs, who also know the legend of the Beni Musa (“Sons of Moses”), agree with the Jews in placing their land in Africa.

Page from the Tarikh es-Sudan which describes Za/Zuwa Alyaman coming from Yemen and settling in Kukiya.

As early as Roman times, Moroccan Jews had begun to travel inland to trade with groups of Berbers, most of whom were nomads who dwelt in remote areas of the Atlas Mountains. Jews lived side by side with Berbers, forging both economic and cultural ties ;some Berbers even began to practice Judaism. In response, Berber spirituality transformed Jewish ritual, painting it with a belief in the power of demons and saints. When the Muslims swept across the North of Africa, Jews and Berbers defied them together. Across the Atlas Mountains, the legendary Queen Kahina led a tribe of 7th century Berbers, Jews, and other North African ethnic groups in battle against encroaching Islamic warriors.

In the 10th century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad became increasingly hostile to Jews, many Jewish traders there left for the Maghreb, Tunisia in particular. Over the following two to three centuries, a distinctive social group of traders throughout the Mediterranean world became known as the Maghrebi, passing on this identification from father to son.

According to certain local Malian legends a mention in the Tarikh al-Sudan may have recorded the first Jewish presence in West Africa with the arrival of the first Zuwa ruler of Koukiya and his brother, located near the Niger River. He was known only as Za/Zuwa Alayman (meaning “He comes from Yemen”). Some local legends state that Zuwa Alayman was a member of one of the Jewish communities that were either transported or voluntarily moved from Yemen by the Ethiopians in the 6th century C.E. after the defeat of Dhu Nuwas. The Tarikh al-Sudan, states that there were 14 Zuwa rulers of Kukiya after Zuwa Alyaman before the rise of Islam in the region.[5] There is though debate on whether or not the Tarikh es-Soudan can be understand in this manner.

Trade and establishment of communities

Pages from the Tarikh al-fattash, Manuscript C, which describe the Jews/Bani Israeel of Tirdirma.

Manuscript C of the Tarikh al-fattash describes a community called the Bani Israeel that in 1402 CE existed in Tirdirma, possessed 333 wells, and had seven leaders:
•Jabroot bin-Hashim
•Thoelyaman bin-Abdel Hakim
•Zeor bin-Salam
•Abdel-latif bin-Solayman
•Malik bin-Ayoob
•Fadil bin-Mzar
•Shaleb bin-Yousef

It is also stated that they had an army of 1500 men.[6] Other sources say that other Jewish communities in the region were formed by migrations from Morocco, Egypt, and Portugal. When the Scottish explorer Mungo Park traveled through West Africa in the late 18th century he was informed by an Arab he met near Walata of there being many Arabic speaking Jews in Timbuktu whose prayers were similar to the Moors.[7] Some communities are said to have been populated by certain Berber Jews like a group of Kal Tamasheq known as Iddao Ishaak that traveled from North Africa into West Africa for trade, as well as those escaping the Islamic invasions into North Africa.[8]

Islamic era

In the 14th century many Moors and Jews, fleeing persecution in Spain, migrated south to the Timbuktu area, at that time part of the Songhai Empire. Among them was the Kehath (Ka’ti) family, descended from Ismael Jan Kot Al-yahudi of Scheida, Morocco. Sons of this prominent family founded three villages that still exist near Timbuktu — Kirshamba, Haybomo, and Kongougara. In 1492, Askia Mohammad I came to power in the previously tolerant region of Timbuktu and decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave; Judaism became illegal in Mali, as it did in Catholic Spain that same year. This was based on the advice of Muhammad al-Maghili.

As the historian Leo Africanus wrote in 1526:
“In Garura there were some very rich Jews. The intervention of the preacher (Muhammid al-Maghili) of Tlemcen set up the pillage of their goods, and most of them have been killed by the population. This event took place during the same year when the Jews had been expelled from Spain and Sicily by the Catholic King.”
Leo Africanus further wrote:
“The king (Askia) is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods.”
Jews of the Sahara

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Daggatun and Berber Jews

There seems to be little doubt that Jewish have largely been mixed with Berbers living in the Moroccan and Algerian Sahara. It is believed that some Berber clans may have been at one time Jews and according to another tradition they are descended from the Philistines driven out of Canaan.[9] There is a tradition that Moses was buried in Tlemçen, and the presence of a large number of Jews in that part of Africa is attested to, not only by the many sacred places and shrines bearing Biblical names which are holy to Muslims as well as to Jews, but also by the presence there of a large number of Jewish sagas.[9] L. Rinn says: “Certain Berber tribes were for a long time of the Jewish religion, especially in Amès; and to-day, even, we see among the Hanensha of Sukahras (Algeria) a semi-nomad tribe of Israelites devoted entirely to agriculture”.[10]

In addition, it may be noticed that Jews are to be found in the Berber “ksurs” (fortified villages) all along southern Morocco and in the adjacent Sahara. Thus, at Outat near Tafilalt there is a mellah with about 500 Jews;[11] and at Figuig, a mellah with 100 Jews.[11] Going farther south to Tuat, there is a large community of Jews in the oasis of Alhamada; and at Tamentit, a two weeks’ journey from Tafilalt, the 6,000 or 8,000 inhabitants are said to be descendants of Jews converted to Islam.[11] Even much farther to the west, in the province of Sus, there is Ogulmin with 3,000 inhabitants, of whom 100 are said to be Jews.

Daggatun connection

Caravan approaching Timbuktu in 1853 (from Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa by Prof. Dr. Heinrich Barth, vol. iv, London 1858)

The Daggatuns were a nomadic tribe of Jewish origin living in the neighborhood of Tamentit, in the oasis of Tuat in the Moroccan Sahara. An account of the Daggatun was first given by Rabbi Mordechai Abi Serour of Akka (Morocco), who in 1857 journeyed through the Sahara to Timbuctu, and whose account of his travels was published in the “Bulletin de la Société de Géographie”.[12] According to Rabbi Sarur, the Daggatun lived in tents and resembled the Berber Kel Tamesheq (Tuareg), among whom they live, in language, religion, and general customs. They are subject to the Tuaregs, who do not intermarry with them. Rabbi Sarur also states that their settlement in the Sahara dates from the end of the 7th century (Muslim chronology) when ‘Abd al-Malik ascended the throne and conquered as far as Morocco. At Tamentit he tried to convert the inhabitants to Islam; and as the Jews offered great resistance he exiled them to the desert of Ajaj, as he did also the Tuaregs, who had only partially accepted Islam. Cut off from any connection with their brethren, these Jews in the Sahara gradually lost their Jewish practises and became nominally Muslims.

Other accounts place a group of “Arabs” driven to Ajaj as being identified with the Mechagra mentioned by Erwin von Bary,[13] among whom a few Jews are said still to dwell there. Victor J. Horowitz[14] also speaks of many free tribes in the desert regions who are Jews by origin, but who have gradually thrown off Jewish customs and have apparently accepted Islam. Among these tribes, he says, are the Daggatun, numbering several thousands and scattered over several oases in the Sahara, even as far as the River Dialiva (Djoliba?) or Niger. He says, also, that they are very warlike and in constant conflict with the Tuareg. According to Horowitz, the Mechagra mentioned above are also to be reckoned as one of these Jewish tribes. Horowitz had never been to Africa, but relied mainly on rumours spread in the European Jewish community.

Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour and the last Timbuktu community

Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour circa 1870s – 1880s. Last Rabbi of Timbuktu.

Former Timbuktu house and synagogue of Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour used circa 1870’s – 1880’s.

Rabbi Mordechai Abi Serour, with his brother Yitzhaq, came from Morocco in 1859 to be a trader in Timbuktu. At the time of Rabbi Serour’s bold enterprise, direct trade relations with the interior of west Africa (then known to them as Sudan) were monopolized by Muslim merchants. Non-Muslims were precluded from this trade because Arab merchants were determined to forestall encroachments upon their lucrative business.[15]

As a man of cosmopolitan experience, he was well suited to be a merchant in that time and place. He was clever, shrewd, articulate, audacious, and most important he knew Koranic law as well as most learned Muslims.[16] Throughout his travels to Timbuktu Rabbi Serour preferred to have most of his merchandise transported across the Sahara by bejaoui. The term, bejaoui, refers to single or small groups of camels that carried travelers sometimes without merchandise or baggage, and were accompanied by indigenous guides.[17]

As a Jew, he couldn’t set up his trading business, so he appealed to the regional ruler, who at that time was a Fulani Emir, and negotiated dhimmi, or protected people status. Between 1860 to 1862 Rabbi Serour and his brother Yitzhaq were able to become successful and they became well known in the area. After earning a small fortune, Rabbi Serour returned to Morocco in 1863.[18] He gave his father a large sum of money and talked his other brothers into joining him on his next venture to Timbuktu. In 1864, the Jewish colony in Timbuktu had reason to rejoice since by the end of the year they had eleven adult male Jews in residence. This was significant since it meant that they could form a minyan and establish a synagogue. They were:[19][20]
•Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour
•Mordechai’s brothers Esau, Avraham, and Yitzhaq
•Esau’s sons Aharon and David
•Aharon’s son Yitzhaq
•Moussa (Mordechai’s brother in law)
•Moussa’s son David
•Rabbi Raphael
•Shimon Ben-Yaaqov

Cape Verde

Main article: History of the Jews in Cape Verde

See also: History of Cape Verde

Manuel I in 1496, decided to exile thousands of Jews to São Tomé, Príncipe, and Cape Verde. The numbers expelled at this time were so great that the term “Portuguese” almost implied those of Jewish origin. Those who were not expelled were converted by force or executed. During the early 19th century, Jews also came to settle in Santo Antão where there are still traces of their influx in the name of the village of Sinagoga, located on the north coast between Riberia Grande and Janela, and in the Jewish cemetery at the town of Ponta da Sol. A final chapter of Jewish history in Cape Verde took place in the 1850s when Moroccan Jews arrived, especially in Boa Vista and Maio for the hide trade.[21]

Emergence of Arabic records in Timbuktu

Records of the Jewish history of Mali can still be found in the Kati Andalusi library. Ismael Diadie Haidara, a historian from Timbuktu, possesses old Arabic and Hebrew texts among the city’s historical records.[22] He has also researched his own past and discovered that he is descended from the Moroccan Jewish traders of the Abana family. As he interviewed elders in the villages of his relatives, he has discovered that knowledge of the family’s Jewish identity has been preserved, in secret, out of fear of persecution.

Recently there has come to light the personal library of the first Mahmoud Kati, which was handed down through his descendants and added to through at least the mid-17th century. This extraordinary “discovery” was made a by a young Malian historian, Ismaël Diadié Haïdara, a member of the Kati clan, and author of several books, including L’Espagne musulmane et l’Afrique subsaharienne (1997), and Les Juifs de Tombouctou (1999). The library is currently in the possession of two branches of the Kati clan in the village of Kirshamba about 100 miles to the west of Timbuktu. Up to 1,700 out of an estimated 2,000 manuscripts in the library have been examined and evaluated by Abdul Kader Haïdara, the Timbuktu-based expert in Arabic manuscripts and guardian of the Mamma Haidara Memorial Library currently being rehabilitated through a grant from the Mellon Foundation.[23]

The trading documents referred to three families in particular: the Kehath family (Ka’ti) that came from southern Morocco and converted with the rest of the population in 1492; the Cohen family descended from the Moroccan Jewish trader al-Hajj Abd al-Salam al Kuhin, who arrived in the Timbuktu area in the 18th century; and the Abana family, which came in the first half of the 19th century.[24]

See also
•Sephardi Jews
•Mizrahi Jews
•History of the Jews in Algeria
•History of the Jews in Tunisia
•History of the Jews in Morocco
•History of the Jews in Libya
•Trans-Saharan trade
•Jews and Judaism in Africa
•House of Israel
•Lemba people
•Tribe of Judah

References

1.Tamid, 32b, and the parallel passage, where, “African land”, is evidently the same as Carthage
2.Isaiah 23:1
3.on Ezekiel 25:7
4.Mek., Bo, 17; Tosef., Shab. vii. 25; Deut. R. v. 14; and especially Sanh. 94a
5.Tarikh es-Soudan, Paris, 1900, by Abderrahman ben-Abdall es-Sadi (trad. O. Houdas) pages 5-10
6.Tarikh al-fattash, by Mahmoud Kati ben El-Hajj El Motaoukkal Kati, 1657, pages 62-63
7.Jews of a Saharan Oasis: Elimination of the Tamantit Community, Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, New Jersey, 2006, by John Hunwick. page 67
8.Primak, Karen. Jews in Places You Never Thought of. Ktav Publishing. ISBN 0-88125-608-0.
9.Basset, “Nedromah,”p. 13
10.“Origines Berbers”, p. 406 (see “Rev. Arch. de Constantine”, 1867, p. 102)
11.Horowitz, l.c. p. 202,204,205
12.Dec., 1895; see “Bulletin de l’Alliance Israèlite” vol. ii. 42, 1880; “La Grand Encyclopedie”, xxiii. 254; James Edward Budgett-Meakin, Land of the Moors, p.17
13.“Ghat et les Tuareg de l’Air”, p. 181
14.Marokko., Leipzig 1887, pp. 58 seq.
15.God’s Will The Travels of Rabbi Mordochai Abi Serour, by Dr. Sanford H. Bederman, GSU Department of Geography Research Series, 1980, page 9
16.Ibed. page 7
17.Ibed. page 10
18.Ibed. page 14
19.Ibed. page 15
20.Les Juifs à Tombouctou, or Jews of Timbuktu, Recueil de sources écrites relatives au commerce juif à Tombouctou au XIXe siècle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999 by Professor Ismael Diadie Haidara, page 31
21.Jews in Cape Verde and on the Guinea Coast, Paper presented at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, February 11, 1996, by Richard Lobban
22.The Renewal of Jewish Identity in Timbuktu, by Karen Primack
23.The Kati Library, Saharan Studies Association
24.The Jews of Timbuktu, by Rick Gold, Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999

Further reading

General
•Wars of the Jews: A Military History from Biblical to Modern Times, Hipporcrene Books, New York, 1990, by Monroe Rosenthal and Isaac Mozeson
•Jewish Communities in Exotic Places, Jason Aronson Inc., Jerusalem, by Ken Blady
•Jews In Africa: Ancient Black African Relations, Fact Paper 19-II, By Samuel Kurinsky
•Hebrewisms of West Africa: From Nile to Niger With the Jews, The Dial Press, New York, 1931, by Joseph J. Williams
•Jews of a Saharan Oasis: Elimination of the Tamantit Community, Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, New Jersey, 2006, by John Hunwick

Mali and Songhay
•Jews in Africa: Part 1 The Berbers and the Jews, by Sam Timinsky (Hebrew History Federation)
•The Jews of Timbuktu, Washington Jewish Week, December 30, 1999, by Rick Gold
•Les Juifs à Tombouctou, or Jews of Timbuktu, Recueil de sources écrites relatives au commerce juif à Tombouctou au XIXe siècle, Editions Donniya, Bamako, 1999 by Professor Ismael Diadie Haidara

Cape Verde and Guinea Coast
•Jews in Cape Verde and on the Guinea Coast, Paper presented at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, February 11, 1996, by Richard Lobban

External links
•Resources>Jewish communities>Magreb The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Timbuktu
•Timbuktu: City of Legends, Joan Baxtor
•Les manuscrits trouvés à Tombouctou, by Jean-Michel Djian

Northern Africa
•Jews and Berbers, by Dr. Bruce Maddy-Weitzman

Cape Verde
•Jews in Cape Verde and the Guinna Coast, by Dr. Richard Lobban

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History of the Jews in Africa

Sovereign states

•Algeria
•Angola
•Benin
•Botswana
•Burkina Faso
•Burundi
•Cameroon
•Cape Verde
•Central African Republic
•Chad
•Comoros
•Democratic Republic of the Congo
•Republic of the Congo
•Djibouti
•Egypt
•Equatorial Guinea
•Eritrea
•Ethiopia
•Gabon
•The Gambia
•Ghana
•Guinea
•Guinea-Bissau
•Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire)
•Kenya
•Lesotho
•Liberia
•Libya
•Madagascar
•Malawi
•Mali
•Mauritania
•Mauritius
•Morocco
•Mozambique
•Namibia
•Niger
•Nigeria
•Rwanda
•São Tomé and Príncipe
•Senegal
•Seychelles
•Sierra Leone
•Somalia
•South Africa
•South Sudan
•Sudan
•Swaziland
•Tanzania
•Togo
•Tunisia
•Uganda
•Zambia
•Zimbabwe
States with limited
recognition

•Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
•Somaliland
Dependencies and
other territories

•Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla / Plazas de soberanía(Spain)
•Madeira(Portugal)
•Mayotte / Réunion(France)
•Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da Cunha(United Kingdom)
Categories:
•Jews and Judaism in Africa
•History of the Gambia
•West Africa
•Malian Jews
•Cape Verdean Jews
•History of Benin
•History of Burkina Faso
•History of Cape Verde
•History of Guinea
•History of Mali
•History of Azawad
•History of Mauritania
•History of Niger
•History of Nigeria
•History of Senegal
•Ghana Empire
•Mali Empire
•Songhai Empire

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